Saratoga Investment Corp.
SARATOGA INVESTMENT CORP. (Form: N-2, Received: 02/28/2017 18:36:17)
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 28, 2017

Securities Act File No. 333                    

 

 

 

U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM N-2

(Check appropriate box or boxes)

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Pre-Effective Amendment No.     

Post-Effective Amendment No.     

 

 

SARATOGA INVESTMENT CORP.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

 

 

535 Madison Avenue

New York, New York 10022

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

(212) 906-7800

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)

 

 

Christian L. Oberbeck

Chief Executive Officer

Saratoga Investment Corp.

535 Madison Avenue

New York, New York 10022

(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

 

 

COPIES TO:

Steven B. Boehm, Esq.

Harry S. Pangas, Esq.

Payam Siadatpour, Esq.

Eversheds Sutherland (US) LLP

700 Sixth Street, NW, Suite 700

Washington, DC 20001

Tel: (202) 383-0100

Fax: (202) 637-3593

 

 

Approximate date of proposed public offering:

From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement.

If any of the securities being registered on this form are offered on a delayed or continuous basis in reliance on Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered in connection with a dividend reinvestment plan, check the following box.  ☒

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box):

☐  When declared effective pursuant to Section 8(c).

 

 


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CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Title of Securities
Being Registered
  Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price(1)
  Amount of
Registration Fee(7)

Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share(2)(3)

       

Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value per share(2)

       

Subscription Rights(2)

       

Debt Securities(4)

       

Warrants(5)

       

Total(6)

  $50,000,000   $5,795

 

(1) Estimated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933 solely for the purpose of determining the registration fee. The proposed maximum offering price per security will be determined, from time to time, by the Registrant in connection with the sale by the Registrant of the securities registered under this Registration Statement. In reliance upon Rule 429 under the Securities Act of 1933, this amount is comprised of the amount previously registered by the Registrant under a registration statement on Form N-2 (File No. 333-215611). All amounts unsold under the prospectus contained in such prior Registration Statement (a total of $50,000,000) are carried forward into this Registration Statement, and the prospectus contained as a part of this Registration Statement shall be deemed to be combined with the prospectus contained in the above-referenced registration statement, which has previously been filed.
(2) Subject to Note 6 below, there is being registered hereunder an indeterminate number of shares of common stock, preferred stock, subscription rights to purchase shares of common stock or warrants to purchase shares of our common stock, as may be sold, from time to time.
(3) Subject to Note 6 below, includes such indeterminate number of shares of common stock as may, from time to time, be issued upon conversion or exchange of other securities registered hereunder, to the extent any such securities are, by their terms, convertible or exchangeable for common stock.
(4) Subject to Note 6 below, there is being registered hereunder an indeterminate number of debt securities as may be sold, from time to time. If any debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the offering price shall be in such greater principal amount as shall result in an aggregate price to investors not to exceed $50,000,000.
(5) Subject to Note 6 below, there is being registered hereunder an indeterminate number of warrants as may be sold, from time to time.
(6) In no event will the aggregate offering price of all securities issued from time to time pursuant to this Registration Statement exceed $50,000,000.
(7) Previously paid.

 

 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. The securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED FEBRUARY 28, 2017

$50,000,000

LOGO

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Subscription Rights

Debt Securities

Warrants

We are a specialty finance company that invests primarily in leveraged loans and mezzanine debt issued by private U.S. middle-market companies, both through direct lending and through participation in loan syndicates. Our investment objective is to generate current income and, to a lesser extent, capital appreciation from our investments.

We are externally managed and advised by Saratoga Investment Advisors, LLC, a New York-based investment firm affiliated with Saratoga Partners, a middle market private equity investment firm.

We may offer, from time to time, in one or more offerings or series, up to $50,000,000 of our common stock, preferred stock, subscription rights to purchase shares of our common stock, debt securities, and warrants representing rights to purchase shares of our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, which we refer to, collectively, as our “securities.” The preferred stock, subscription rights, warrants and debt securities offered hereby may be convertible or exchangeable into shares of our common stock. The securities may be offered at prices and on terms to be described in one or more supplements to this prospectus.

Absent approval by the majority of our common stockholders, the offering price per share of our common stock less any underwriting commissions or discounts will not be less than the net asset value per share of our common stock at the time we make the offering unless we issue shares in connection with a rights offering to our existing stockholders or under such other circumstances as the SEC may permit. We do not currently have stockholder approval of issuances below net asset value. In addition, we cannot issue shares of our common stock below net asset value unless our Board of Directors determines that it would be in our and our stockholders’ best interests to do so. Sales of common stock at prices below net asset value per share dilute the interests of existing stockholders, have the effect of reducing our net asset value per share and may reduce our market price per share. In addition, continuous sales of common stock below net asset value may have a negative impact on total returns and could have a negative impact on the market price of our shares of common stock. See “Sales of Common Stock Below Net Asset Value.”

Our securities may be offered directly to one or more purchasers, or through agents designated from time to time by us, or to or through underwriters or dealers. The prospectus supplement relating to an offering will identify any agents or underwriters involved in the sale of our securities, and will disclose any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between us and our agents or underwriters or among our underwriters or the basis upon which such amount may be calculated. See “Plan of Distribution.” We may not sell any of our securities through agents, underwriters or dealers without delivery of this prospectus and a prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.

Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “SAR.” On February 27, 2017, the last reported sales price on the NYSE for our common stock was $22.22 per share. We are required to determine the net asset value per share of our common stock on a quarterly basis. Our net asset value per share of our common stock as of November 30, 2016 was $22.21.


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Substantially all of the debt investments held in our portfolio hold a non-investment grade rating by one or more rating agencies (which non-investment grade debt is commonly referred to as “high yield” and “junk” debt) or, if not rated, would be rated below investment grade or “junk” if rated. A majority of our debt portfolio consists of debt securities for which issuers were not required to make principal payments until the maturity of such debt securities, which could result in a substantial loss to us if such issuers are unable to refinance or repay their debt at maturity. A substantial amount of our subordinated debt and preferred equity investments pay payment-in-kind interest, which creates negative amortization on a loan, resulting in an increase in the amounts that our portfolio companies will ultimately be required to pay us. In addition, a majority of our debt investments had variable interest rates that reset periodically based on benchmarks such as LIBOR and the prime rate. As a result, significant increases in such benchmarks in the future may make it more difficult for these borrowers to service their obligations under the debt investments that we hold.

This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement contain important information about us that a prospective investor should know before investing in our securities, and will collectively constitute the prospectus for each offering of our securities hereunder. We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information about us with the Securities and Exchange Commission. This information is available free of charge by contacting us at 535 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10022, by telephone at (212) 906-7800, or on our website at http://www.saratogainvestmentcorp.com . The information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement, and you should not consider that information to be part of either. The SEC also maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains such information.

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk and should be considered speculative. For more information regarding the risks you should consider, including the risk of leverage, please see “ Risk Factors ” beginning on page 22 of this prospectus. For example, our investment in the subordinated notes of one collateralized loan obligation fund, Saratoga Investment Corp. CLO 2013-1, Ltd., represents a first loss position in a portfolio that is composed predominantly of senior secured first lien term loans. A first loss position means that we will suffer the first economic losses if losses are incurred on loans held by the collateralized loan obligation fund or losses are otherwise incurred by the collateralized loan obligation fund, including its incurrence of operating expenses in excess of its operating income.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate sales of securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

The date of this prospectus is            , 2017


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You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus. We have not authorized any dealer, salesperson or other person to provide you with different information or to make representations as to matters not stated in this prospectus. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. This prospectus is not an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities by any person in any jurisdiction where it is unlawful for that person to make such an offer or solicitation or to any person in any jurisdiction to whom it is unlawful to make such an offer or solicitation. The information in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, and under no circumstances should the delivery of this prospectus or the sale of any securities imply that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any later date or that the affairs of Saratoga Investment Corp., have not changed since the date hereof or thereof. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospectus may have changed since then. We will update the information in this prospectus to reflect material changes only as required by law.

Table of Contents

 

     Page  

Prospectus Summary

     1  

The Offering

     12  

Fees and Expenses

     16  

Selected Financial and Other Data

     19  

Risk Factors

     22  

Use of Proceeds

     46  

Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges

     47  

Note about Forward-Looking Statements

     48  

Price Range of Common Stock and Distributions

     49  

Dividend Reinvestment Plan

     54  

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

     56  

Senior Securities

     88  

Business

     90  

Our Portfolio Companies

     103  

Management Agreements

     107  

Management

     114  

Portfolio Management

     123  

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions

     124  

Control Persons and Principal Stockholders

     124  

Regulation

     127  

Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations

     133  

Determination of Net Asset Value

     140  

Sales of Common Stock Below Net Asset Value

     143  

Description of Our Capital Stock

     148  

Description of Our Subscription Rights

     154  

Description of Our Debt Securities

     156  

Description of Our Warrants

     170  

Plan of Distribution

     172  

Brokerage Allocation and Other Practices

     174  

Custodian, Transfer and Dividend Paying Agent and Registrar

     174  

Legal Matters

     174  

Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

     174  

Available Information

     174  

Privacy Notice

     175  

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

     F-1  

Index to other Financial Statements of Saratoga CLO

     S-1  


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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights some of the information in this prospectus. It is not complete and may not contain all of the information that is important to you. You should read carefully the more detailed information set forth under “Risk Factors” and the other information included in this prospectus. Unless otherwise noted, the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company” and “Saratoga” refer to Saratoga Investment Corp. and its wholly owned subsidiaries, Saratoga Investment Funding LLC and Saratoga Investment Corp. SBIC LP, and does not refer to Saratoga Investment Corp. CLO 2013-1 Ltd. In addition, the terms “Saratoga Investment Advisors” and “investment adviser” refer to Saratoga Investment Advisors, LLC, our external investment adviser.

Overview

We are a specialty finance company that invests primarily in leveraged loans and mezzanine debt issued by private U.S. middle-market companies, which we define as companies having annual EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization) of between $2 million and $50 million, both through direct lending and through participation in loan syndicates. Our investment objective is to generate current income and, to a lesser extent, capital appreciation from our investments. We are externally managed and advised by Saratoga Investment Advisors, LLC, a New York-based investment firm affiliated with Saratoga Partners, a middle market private equity investment firm.

Our portfolio is comprised primarily of investments in leveraged loans (both first and second lien term loans) issued by middle market companies. Term loans are loans that do not allow the borrowers to repay all or a portion of the loans prior to maturity and then re-borrow such repaid amounts under the loan again. Leveraged loans are generally senior debt instruments that rank ahead of subordinated debt which are issued by companies with below investment grade or “junk” ratings or, if not rated, would be rated below investment grade or “junk” and, as a result, carry a higher risk of default. Leveraged loans also have the benefit of first or second lien security interests on the assets of the portfolio company, which may rank ahead of, or be junior to, other security interests. We also purchase mezzanine debt and make equity investments in middle market companies. Mezzanine debt is typically unsecured and subordinated to senior debt of the portfolio company. As of November 30, 2016, 24.7% of our debt portfolio at fair value consisted of debt securities for which issuers were not required to make principal payments until the maturity of such debt securities, which could result in a substantial loss to us if such issuers are unable to refinance or repay their debt at maturity.

Substantially all of the debt investments held in our portfolio hold a non-investment grade rating by one or more rating agencies (which non-investment grade debt is commonly referred to as “high yield” and “junk” debt) or, if not rated, would be rated below investment grade or “junk” if rated. In addition, 81.7% of our debt investments at November 30, 2016 had variable interest rates that reset periodically based on benchmarks such as LIBOR and the prime rate. As a result, significant increases in such benchmarks in the future may make it more difficult for these borrowers to service their obligations under the debt investments that we hold.

While our primary focus is to generate current income and capital appreciation from our debt and equity investments in middle market companies, we may invest up to 30% of the portfolio in opportunistic investments in order to seek to enhance returns to stockholders. Such investments may include investments in distressed debt, including securities of companies in bankruptcy, foreign debt, private equity, securities of public companies that are not thinly traded and structured finance vehicles such as collateralized loan obligation funds. Although we have no current intention to do so, to the extent we invest in private equity funds, we will limit our investments in entities that are excluded from the definition of “investment company” under Section 3(c)(1) or Section 3(c)(7) of Investment Company Act of 1940 (“1940 Act”), which includes private equity funds, to no more than 15% of its net assets.

 



 

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As of November 30, 2016, we had total assets of $305.5 million and investments in 30 portfolio companies and an additional investment in the subordinated notes of one collateralized loan obligation fund, Saratoga Investment Corp. CLO 2013-1, Ltd. (“Saratoga CLO”), which investment had a fair value of $11.0 million as of November 30, 2016. Our overall portfolio composition as of November 30, 2016 consisted of 3.5% of syndicated loans, 57.8% of first lien term loans, 28.9% of second lien term loans, 5.5% of subordinated notes of Saratoga CLO and Class F notes tranche of the Saratoga CLO and 4.3% of common equity. As of November 30, 2016, the weighted average yield on all of our debt investments, including our investment in the subordinated notes of Saratoga CLO and Class F notes tranche of the Saratoga CLO, was approximately 10.8%. The weighted average yield of our debt investments is not the same as a return on investment for our stockholders and, among other things, is calculated before the payment of our fees and expenses. As of November 30, 2016, approximately 100.0% of our first lien debt investments, which comprises 57.8% of our portfolio, were fully collateralized in which we held such investments had an asset coverage equal to or greater than the principal amount of the related debt investment. The Company uses enterprise value to assess the level of collateralization of its portfolio companies. The enterprise value of a portfolio company is determined by analyzing various factors, including EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization), cash flows from operations less capital expenditures and other pertinent factors, such as recent offers to purchase a portfolio company’s securities or other liquidation events. As a result, while we consider a portfolio company to be collateralized if its enterprise value exceeds the amount of our loan, we do not hold tangible assets as collateral in our portfolio companies that we would obtain in the event of a default. Even though these loans are fully collateralized as is the case with all of the liens on our debt investments, there can be no assurance that the value of collateral will be sufficient to allow the portfolio company repay our first lien debt investments in the event of its default on our investment.

Saratoga CLO is an exempted company with limited liability incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands, which was established to acquire or participate in U.S. dollar-denominated corporate debt obligations. Saratoga CLO has issued various tranches of senior notes, held by numerous investors, and one tranche of subordinated notes, held entirely by us. As we own 100% of the subordinated notes issued by Saratoga CLO, which is junior to all of its other outstanding indebtedness, we are deemed to hold 100% of the equity interests in Saratoga CLO for tax purposes. Our investment in the subordinated notes of Saratoga CLO represents a first loss position in a portfolio that, at November 30, 2016, was composed of $297.5 million in aggregate principal amount of predominantly senior secured first lien term loans. A first loss position means that we will suffer the first economic losses if losses are incurred on loans held by the Saratoga CLO or losses otherwise incurred by Saratoga CLO, including its incurrence of operating expenses in excess of its operating income. As a result, this investment is subject to unique risks. See “Risk Factors—Our investment in Saratoga CLO constitutes a leveraged investment in a portfolio of predominantly senior secured first lien term loans and is subject to additional risks and volatility” for information regarding the general risks related to our investment in Saratoga CLO. Although we believe that we have observed and will observe certain formalities and operating procedures that are generally recognized requirements for maintaining our separate existence and that our assets and liabilities can be readily identified as distinct from those of Saratoga CLO, there can be no assurance that a bankruptcy court, in the exercise of its broad equitable powers, would not order that our assets and liabilities be substantively consolidated with those of Saratoga CLO in connection with a bankruptcy proceeding involving us or Saratoga CLO, including for the purposes of making distributions under a plan of reorganization or liquidation. Substantive consolidation means that our assets are placed in a single bankruptcy estate with those of Saratoga CLO, rather than kept separate, and that the creditors of Saratoga CLO have a claim against that single estate (including our assets), as opposed to retaining their claims against only Saratoga CLO. See “Risk Factors—In the event that a bankruptcy court orders the substantive consolidation of us with Saratoga CLO, the creditors of Saratoga CLO, including the holders of $282.4 million aggregate principal amount of debt, as of November 30, 2016, issued by Saratoga CLO, would have claims against the consolidated bankruptcy estate.”

On January 22, 2008, we entered into a collateral management agreement with Saratoga CLO, pursuant to which we act as its collateral manager. In addition, we purchased for $30.0 million all of the outstanding

 



 

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subordinated notes of Saratoga CLO. The Saratoga CLO was initially refinanced in October 2013 and its reinvestment period ended in October 2016. On November 15, 2016, we completed the second refinancing of the Saratoga CLO. The Saratoga CLO refinancing, among other things, extended its reinvestment period to October 2018, and extended its legal maturity date to October 2025. Following the refinancing, the Saratoga CLO portfolio remained at the same size and with a similar capital structure of approximately $300 million in aggregate principal amount of predominantly senior secured first lien term loans. In addition to refinancing its liabilities, we also purchased $4.5 million in aggregate principal amount of the Class F notes tranche of the Saratoga CLO at par, with a coupon of 8.5%. The Class F tranche is the eighth tranche in the capital structure of Saratoga CLO and is subordinated to the other debt classes of Saratoga CLO. The Class F tranche is only senior to the subordinated notes, which is effectively the equity position in Saratoga CLO. As a result, the other tranches of debt in Saratoga CLO rank ahead of the $4.5 million Class F tranche and ahead of the aggregate principal amount of our position in the subordinated notes, which as of November 30, 2016 had a fair value of $4.3 million, with respect to priority of payments in the event of a default or a liquidation.

The Saratoga CLO remains effectively 100% owned and managed by Saratoga Investment Corp. because the Company owns all of the outstanding subordinated notes of Saratoga CLO, which is the equivalent of an equity position, and the Company manages the portfolio of Saratoga CLO. We receive a base management fee of 0.10% and a subordinated management fee of 0.40% of the fee basis amount at the beginning of the collection period, paid quarterly to the extent of available proceeds. We are also entitled to an incentive management fee equal to 20.0% of excess cash flow to the extent the Saratoga CLO subordinated notes receive an internal rate of return paid in cash equal to or greater than 12.0%.

We are an externally managed, closed-end, non-diversified management investment company that has elected to be regulated as a business development company (“BDC”) under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (“1940 Act”). As a BDC, we are required to comply with various regulatory requirements, including limitations on our use of debt. We finance our investments through borrowings. However, as a BDC, we are only generally allowed to borrow amounts such that our asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, equals at least 200% after such borrowing.

We have elected to be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a regulated investment company (“RIC”), under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (the “Code”). As a RIC, we generally will not have to pay corporate-level federal income taxes on any net ordinary income or capital gains that we distribute to our stockholders if we meet certain source-of-income, distribution and asset diversification requirements.

In addition, we have a wholly-owned subsidiary that is licensed as a small business investment company (“SBIC”) and regulated by the Small Business Administration (“SBA”). See “Regulation—Small Business Investment Company Regulations.” The SBIC license allows us, through our wholly-owned subsidiary, to issue SBA-guaranteed debentures. We received exemptive relief from the Securities and Exchange Commission to permit us to exclude the debt of our SBIC subsidiary guaranteed by the SBA from the definition of senior securities in the 200% asset coverage test under the 1940 Act. This allows us increased flexibility under the 200% asset coverage test by permitting us to borrow up to $150 million more than we would otherwise be able to absent the receipt of this exemptive relief.

Saratoga Investment Advisors

Our investment adviser was formed in 2010 as a Delaware limited liability company and became our investment adviser in July 2010. Our investment adviser is led by four principals, Christian L. Oberbeck, Michael J. Grisius, Thomas V. Inglesby, and Charles G. Phillips, with 28, 26, 29 and 19 years of experience in leveraged finance, respectively. Our investment adviser is affiliated with Saratoga Partners, a middle market private equity

 



 

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investment firm. Saratoga Partners was established in 1984 to be the middle market private investment arm of Dillon Read & Co. Inc. and has been independent of Dillon Read since 1998. Saratoga Partners has a 28-year history of private investments in middle market companies and focuses on public and private equity, preferred stock, and senior and mezzanine debt investments.

We utilize the personnel, infrastructure, relationships and experience of Saratoga Investment Advisors to enhance the growth of our business. We currently have no employees and each of our executive officers is also an officer of Saratoga Investment Advisors.

We have entered into an investment advisory and management agreement (the “Management Agreement”) with Saratoga Investment Advisors. Pursuant to the Management Agreement, Saratoga Investment Advisors implements our business strategy on a day-to-day basis and performs certain services for us under the direction of our board of directors. Saratoga Investment Advisors is responsible for, among other duties, performing all of our day-to-day investment-related functions, determining investment criteria, sourcing, analyzing and executing investments, asset sales, financings and performing asset management duties.

Saratoga Investment Advisors has formed an investment committee to advise and consult with its senior management team with respect to our investment policies, investment portfolio holdings, financing and leveraging strategies and investment guidelines. We believe that the collective experience of the investment committee members across a variety of fixed income asset classes will benefit us. The investment committee must unanimously approve all investments in excess of $1 million made by us. In addition, all sales of our investments must be approved by three out of four investment committee members. The current members of the investment committee are Messrs. Oberbeck, Grisius, Inglesby, and Phillips.

Investments

Our portfolio is comprised primarily of investments in leveraged loans issued by middle market companies. Investments in middle market companies are generally less liquid than equivalent investments in companies with larger capitalizations. These investments are sourced in both the primary and secondary markets through a network of relationships with commercial and investment banks, commercial finance companies and financial sponsors. The leveraged loans that we purchase are generally used to finance buyouts, acquisitions, growth, recapitalizations and other types of transactions. Leveraged loans are generally senior debt instruments that rank ahead of subordinated debt which are issued by companies with below investment grade or “junk” ratings or, if not rated, would be rated below investment grade or “junk” and, as a result, carry a higher risk of default. Leveraged loans also have the benefit of security interests on the assets of the portfolio company, which may rank ahead of, or be junior to, other security interests. For a discussion risks pertaining to our secured investments, see “Risk Factors—Our investments may be risky, and you could lose all or part of our investment.”

As part of our long-term strategy, we also purchase mezzanine debt and make equity investments in middle market companies. Mezzanine debt is typically unsecured and subordinated to senior debt of the portfolio company. See “Risk Factors—If we make unsecured debt investments, we may lack adequate protection in the event our portfolio companies become distressed or insolvent and will likely experience a lower recovery than more senior debtholders in the event our portfolio companies defaults on their indebtedness.”

In general, at least 70% of a BDC’s assets must be comprised of the type of assets that are listed in Section 55(a) of the 1940 Act, which are referred to as qualifying assets. Qualifying assets are generally securities of U.S. private operating companies, or listed operating companies with an aggregate market value of outstanding voting and non-voting common equity of less than $250 million. As of November 30, 2016, with the exception of our investment in the subordinated notes of Saratoga CLO and a first lien term loan to one other portfolio company, all of our equity and debt investments constituted qualifying assets under the 1940 Act. While

 



 

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our primary focus is to generate current income and capital appreciation from our debt and equity investments in middle market companies, we may invest up to 30% of the portfolio in opportunistic investments in order to seek to enhance returns to stockholders. Such investments may include investments in distressed debt, private equity, securities of public companies that are not thinly traded and structured finance vehicles such as collateralized loan obligation funds.

Prospective portfolio company characteristics

Our investment adviser generally selects portfolio companies with one or more of the following characteristics:

 

    a history of generating stable earnings and strong free cash flow;

 

    well-constructed balance sheets, including an established tangible liquidation value;

 

    reasonable debt-to-cash flow multiples;

 

    industry leadership with competitive advantages and sustainable market shares in attractive sectors; and

 

    capital structures that provide appropriate terms and reasonable covenants.

Investment selection

In managing us, Saratoga Investment Advisors employs the same investment philosophy and portfolio management methodologies used by Saratoga Partners. Through this investment selection process, based on quantitative and qualitative analysis, Saratoga Investment Advisors seeks to identify portfolio companies with superior fundamental risk-reward profiles and strong, defensible business franchises with the goal of minimizing principal losses while maximizing risk-adjusted returns. Saratoga Investment Advisors’ investment process emphasizes the following:

 

    bottoms-up, company-specific research and analysis;

 

    capital preservation, low volatility and minimization of downside risk; and

 

    investing with experienced management teams that hold meaningful equity ownership in their businesses.

Our investment adviser’s investment process generally includes the following steps:

 

    Initial screening. A brief analysis identifies the investment opportunity and reviews the merits of the transaction. The initial screening memorandum provides a brief description of the company, its industry, competitive position, capital structure, financials, equity sponsor and deal economics. If the deal is determined to be attractive by the senior members of the deal team, the opportunity is fully analyzed.

 

    Comprehensive analysis. A comprehensive analysis includes:

 

    Business and Industry analysis—a review of the company’s business position, competitive dynamics within its industry, cost and growth drivers and technological and geographic factors. Business and industry research often includes meetings with industry experts, consultants, other investors, customers and competitors.

 

   

Company analysis—a review of the company’s historical financial performance, future projections, cash flow characteristics, balance sheet strength, liquidation value, legal, financial and accounting risks, contingent liabilities, market share analysis and growth prospects. The Company considers the ability of each portfolio company to continue to make

 



 

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payments in an atmosphere of rising interest rates as a component of its overall diligence and monitoring process. In this regard, the Company regularly receives projections from its portfolio companies and models future performance for them in connection with its valuation process, taking into account changes in interest rates on the portfolio companies. Notwithstanding the foregoing, there can be no assurances that the portfolio companies will be able to meet their contractual obligations at any or all levels of increases in interest rates.

 

    Structural/security analysis—a thorough legal document analysis including but not limited to an assessment of financial and negative covenants, events of default, enforceability of liens and voting rights.

 

    Approval of the investment committee. The investment is then presented to the investment committee for approval. The investment committee must unanimously approve all investments in excess of $1 million made by us. In addition, all sales of our investments must be approved by four out of five investment committee members.

Investment structure

In general, our investment adviser intends to select investments with financial covenants and terms that reduce leverage over time, thereby enhancing credit quality. These methods include:

 

    maintenance leverage covenants requiring a decreasing ratio of debt to cash flow;

 

    maintenance cash flow covenants requiring an increasing ratio of cash flow to the sum of interest expense and capital expenditures; and

 

    debt incurrence prohibitions, limiting a company’s ability to re-lever.

In addition, limitations on asset sales and capital expenditures should prevent a company from changing the nature of its business or capitalization without our consent.

Our investment adviser seeks, where appropriate, to limit the downside potential of our investments by:

 

    requiring a total return on our investments (including both interest and potential equity appreciation) that compensates us for credit risk;

 

    requiring companies to use a portion of their excess cash flow to repay debt;

 

    selecting investments with covenants that incorporate call protection as part of the investment structure; and

 

    selecting investments with affirmative and negative covenants, default penalties, lien protection, change of control provisions and board rights, including either observation or participation rights.

Valuation process

We carry our investments at fair value, as approved in good faith using written policies and procedures adopted by our board of directors. Investments for which market quotations are readily available are recorded in our financial statements at such market quotations subject to any decision by our board of directors to approve a fair value determination to reflect significant events affecting the value of these investments. We value investments for which market quotations are not readily available at fair value as approved in good faith by our board of directors based on input from Saratoga Investment Advisors, our audit committee and, on a selected basis, a third party independent valuation firm. Determinations of fair value may involve subjective judgments and estimates. The types of factors that may be considered in determining the fair value of our investments

 



 

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include the nature and realizable value of any collateral, the portfolio company’s ability to make payments, the markets in which the portfolio company does business, market yield trend analysis, comparison to publicly traded companies, discounted cash flow and other relevant factors.

Our investment in the subordinated notes of Saratoga CLO is carried at fair value, which is based on a discounted cash flow model that utilizes prepayment, re-investment and loss assumptions based on historical experience and projected performance, economic factors, the characteristics of the underlying cash flow, and comparable yields for similar collateralized loan obligation fund subordinated notes or equity, when available. Specifically, we use Intex cash flow models, or an appropriate substitute, to form the basis for Saratoga CLO’s valuation. The models use a set of assumptions including projected default rates, recovery rates, reinvestment rate and prepayment rates in order to arrive at estimated cash flows. The assumptions are based on available market data and projections provided by third parties as well as management estimates. We use the output from the Intex models (i.e., the estimated cash flows from our investment in Saratoga CLO) to perform a discounted cash flows analysis on expected future cash flows from our investment in Saratoga CLO to determine a valuation for the subordinated notes of Saratoga CLO held by us.

We undertake a multi-step valuation process each quarter when valuing investments for which market quotations are not readily available, as described below:

 

    each investment is initially valued by the responsible investment professionals of Saratoga Investment Advisors and preliminary valuation conclusions are documented and discussed with our senior management; and

 

    an independent valuation firm engaged by our board of directors independently values at least one quarter of our investments each quarter so that the valuation of each investment for which market quotes are not readily available is independently valued by an independent valuation firm at least annually.

In addition, all our investments are subject to the following valuation process:

 

    the audit committee of our board of directors reviews each preliminary valuation and our investment adviser and independent valuation firm (if applicable) will supplement the preliminary valuation to reflect any comments provided by the audit committee; and

 

    our board of directors discusses the valuations and approves the fair value of each investment in good faith based on the input of our investment adviser, independent valuation firm (if applicable) and audit committee.

Because such valuations, and particularly valuations of private investments and private companies, are inherently uncertain, they may fluctuate over short periods of time and may be based on estimates. The determination of fair value may differ materially from the values that would have been used if a ready market for these investments existed. Our net asset value could be materially affected if the determinations regarding the fair value of our investments were materially higher or lower than the values that we ultimately realize upon the disposal of such investments.

Ongoing relationships with and monitoring of portfolio companies

Saratoga Investment Advisors closely monitors each investment we make and, when appropriate, conducts a regular dialogue with both the management team and other debtholders and seeks specifically tailored financial reporting. In addition, in certain circumstances, senior investment professionals of Saratoga Investment Advisors may take board seats or board observation seats.

 



 

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Risk Factors

Investing in us involves significant risks. The following is a summary of certain risks that you should carefully consider before investing in us. For a further discussion of these risk factors, please see “Risk Factors” beginning on page 22.

Risks Related to Our Business and Structure

 

    The current state of the economy and financial markets increases the likelihood of adverse effects on our financial position and results of operations.

 

    Saratoga Investment Advisors has a limited history of managing a BDC or a RIC.

 

    We may be obligated to pay Saratoga Investment Advisors incentive fees even if we incur a net loss or there is a decline in the value of our portfolio.

 

    Under the terms of the Management Agreement, we may have to pay incentive fees to Saratoga Investment Advisors in connection with the sale of an investment that is sold at a price higher than the fair value of such investment on May 31, 2010, even if we incur a loss on the sale of such investment.

 

    The way in which the base management and incentive fees under the Management Agreement is determined may encourage Saratoga Investment Advisors to take actions that may not be in the best interests of the holders of our securities.

 

    The base management fee we pay to Saratoga Investment Advisors may cause it to increase our leverage contrary to our interest.

 

    We employ leverage, which magnifies the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested and may increase the risk of investing in our securities.

 

    Saratoga Investment Advisors’ liability is limited under the Management Agreement and we will indemnify Saratoga Investments Advisors against certain liabilities, which may lead it to act in a riskier manner on our behalf than it would when acting for its own account.

 

    Substantially all of our assets are subject to security interests under the Credit Facility, or claims of the SBA with respect to SBA-guaranteed debentures we may issue and if we default on our obligations thereunder, we may suffer adverse consequences, including Madison Capital Funding and/or the SBA foreclosing on our assets.

 

    We are exposed to risks associated with changes in interest rates, including potential effects on our cost of capital and net investment income.

 

    There are significant potential conflicts of interest which could adversely impact our investment returns.

 

    Changes in laws or regulations governing our operations, or changes in the interpretation thereof, and any failure by us to comply with laws or regulations governing our operations may adversely affect our business.

 

    We face cyber-security risks.

 

    If we are unable to maintain the availability of our electronic data systems and safeguard the security of our data, our ability to conduct business may be compromised, which could impair our liquidity, disrupt our business, damage our reputation and cause losses.

 

    Regulations governing our operation as a BDC affect our ability to, and the way in which we, raise additional capital.

 

    Pending legislation may allow us to incur additional leverage.

 



 

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    The agreement governing the Credit Facility contains various covenants that, among other things, limits our discretion in operating our business and provides for certain minimum financial covenants.

 

    A failure on our part to maintain our qualification as a BDC would significantly reduce our operating flexibility.

 

    We will be subject to corporate-level federal income tax if we fail to continue to qualify as a RIC.

 

    Because we intend to distribute between 90% and 100% of our income to our stockholders in connection with our election to be treated as a RIC, we will continue to need additional capital to finance our growth. If additional funds are unavailable or not available on favorable terms, our ability to grow will be impaired.

 

    We may have difficulty paying our required distributions if we recognize income before or without receiving cash in respect of such income.

 

    Our ability to enter into transactions with our affiliates is restricted.

 

    We operate in a highly competitive market for investment opportunities.

 

    Economic recessions or downturns could impair our portfolio companies and harm our operating results.

 

    We are a non-diversified investment company within the meaning of the 1940 Act, and therefore we are not limited with respect to the proportion of our assets that may be invested in securities of a single issuer.

 

    Our financial condition and results of operation depend on our ability to manage future investments effectively.

 

    We may experience fluctuations in our quarterly results.

 

    Substantially all of our portfolio investments are recorded at fair value as approved in good faith by our board of directors; such valuations are inherently uncertain and may be materially higher or lower than the values that we ultimately realize upon the disposal of such investments.

 

    If we make unsecured debt investments, we may lack adequate protection in the event our portfolio companies become distressed or insolvent and will likely experience a lower recovery than more senior debtholders in the event our portfolio companies default on their indebtedness.

 

    If we invest in the securities and other obligations of distressed or bankrupt companies, such investments may be subject to significant risks, including lack of income, extraordinary expenses, uncertainty with respect to satisfaction of debt, lower-than expected investment values or income potentials and resale restrictions.

 

    Second priority liens on collateral securing loans that we make to our portfolio companies may be subject to control by senior creditors with first priority liens. If there is a default, the value of the collateral may not be sufficient to repay in full both the first priority creditors and us.

 

    The lack of liquidity in our investments may adversely affect our business.

 

    The debt securities in which we invest are subject to credit risk and prepayment risk.

 

    Our investment in Saratoga CLO constitutes a leveraged investment in a portfolio of predominantly senior secured first lien term loans and is subject to additional risks and volatility.

 

    Our investments in Saratoga CLO are typically broadly syndicated loans that have a different risk profile than would direct investments made by us, including less information available and fewer rights regarding repayment compared to companies we invest in directly as well as complicated accounting and tax implications.

 

 



 

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    Failure by Saratoga CLO to satisfy certain financial covenants may entitle senior debtholders to additional payments, which may harm our operating results by reducing payments we would otherwise be entitled to receive from Saratoga CLO.

 

    Available information about privately held companies is limited.

 

    When we are a debt or minority equity investor in a portfolio company, we may not be in a position to control the entity, and its management may make decisions that could decrease the value of our investment.

 

    Our portfolio companies may incur debt or issue equity securities that rank equally with, or senior to, our investments in such companies.

 

    There may be circumstances where our debt investments could be subordinated to claims of other creditors or we could be subject to lender liability claims.

 

    Investments in equity securities involve a substantial degree of risk.

 

    Our investments in foreign debt, including that of emerging market issuers, may involve significant risks in addition to the risks inherent in U.S. investments.

 

    We may expose ourselves to risks if we engage in hedging transactions.

 

    Our board of directors may change our investment objective, operating policies and strategies without prior notice or stockholder approval, the effects of which may be adverse.

 

    We have no prior experience managing an SBIC and any failure to comply with SBA regulations, resulting from our lack of experience or otherwise, could have an adverse effect on our operations.

 

    Our investments may be risky, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

 

    Our independent auditors have not assessed our internal control over financial reporting. If our internal control over financial reporting is not effective, it could have a material adverse effect on our stock price and our ability to raise capital.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

 

    Investing in our common stock may involve an above average degree of risk.

 

    We may continue to choose to pay dividends in our own stock, in which case you may be required to pay tax in excess of the cash you receive.

 

    The market price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly.

 

    There is a risk that you may not receive distributions or that our distributions may not grow over time.

 

    Provisions of our governing documents and the Maryland General Corporation Law could deter future takeover attempts and have an adverse impact on the price of our common stock.

 

    Our common stock may trade at a discount to our net asset value per share.

 

    Stockholders may incur dilution if we sell shares of our common stock in one or more offerings at prices below the then current net asset value per share of our common stock.

 

    The issuance of subscription rights, warrants or convertible debt that are exchangeable for our common stock will cause your economic interest and voting power in us to be diluted as a result of our offering of any such securities.

 

    We may be unable to invest a significant portion of the net proceeds from this offering, which could harm our financial condition and operating results.

 



 

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Recent Developments

On December 21, 2016, we issued $74.5 million in aggregate principal amount of our 6.75% fixed-rate notes due 2023 (the “2023 Notes”) for net proceeds of $72.1 million after deducting underwriting commissions of approximately $2.0 million and offering costs of approximately $0.5 million. The issuance included the exercise of substantially all of the underwriters’ option to purchase an additional $9.8 million aggregate principal amount of 2023 Notes within 30 days. Interest on the 2023 Notes is paid quarterly in arrears on March 15, June 15, September 15 and December 15, at a rate of 6.75% per year, beginning March 30, 2017. The 2023 Notes mature on December 20, 2023, and commencing December 21, 2019, may be redeemed in whole or in part at any time or from time to time at our option. The net proceeds from the offering were used to repay all of the outstanding indebtedness under our 7.50% unsecured notes due 2020 (the “2020 Notes”), which amounts to $61.8 million, and for general corporate purposes in accordance with our investment objective and strategies. The 2020 Notes were redeemed in full on January 13, 2017.

On February 28, 2017, our board of directors declared a dividend of $0.46 per share, payable on March 28, 2017, to common stockholders of record as of March 15, 2017.

Corporate History and Information

We commenced operations on March 23, 2007 as GSC Investment Corp. and completed an initial public offering (“IPO”) of shares of our common stock on March 28, 2007. From the date we commenced operations until July 30, 2010, we were managed and advised by GSCP (NJ), L.P., an entity affiliated with GSC Group, Inc. In connection with the consummation of a recapitalization transaction on July 30, 2010, we engaged Saratoga Investment Advisors to replace GSCP (NJ), L.P. as our investment adviser and changed our name to Saratoga Investment Corp.

The recapitalization transaction consisted of (i) the private sale of 986,842 shares of our common stock for $15 million in aggregate purchase price to Saratoga Investment Advisors and certain of its affiliates and (ii) the entry into a senior secured revolving credit facility (“the Credit Facility”) with Madison Capital Funding LLC (“Madison Capital Funding”). We used the net proceeds from the private sale of shares of our common stock and a portion of the funds available to us under the Credit Facility with Madison Capital Funding to pay the full amount of principal and accrued interest, including default interest, outstanding under our revolving securitized credit facility with Deutsche Bank AG, New York Branch. Specifically, in July 2009, we had exceeded permissible borrowing limits under the revolving securitized credit facility with Deutsche Bank, which resulted in an event of default under the revolving securitized credit facility. As a result of the event of default, Deutsche Bank had the right to accelerate repayment of the outstanding indebtedness under the revolving securitized credit facility and to foreclose and liquidate the collateral pledged under the revolving securitized credit facility. The revolving securitized credit facility with Deutsche Bank was terminated in connection with our payment of all amounts outstanding thereunder on July 30, 2010. In January 2011, we registered for public resale by Saratoga Investment Advisors and certain of its affiliates the 986,842 shares of our common stock issued to them in the recapitalization.

On March 28, 2012, our wholly-owned subsidiary, Saratoga Investment Corp SBIC, LP, received an SBIC license from the SBA.

Our corporate offices are located at 535 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10022. Our telephone number is (212) 906-7800. We maintain a website on the Internet at www.saratogainvestmentcorp.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider that information to be part of this prospectus.

 



 

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THE OFFERING

We may offer, from time to time, up to $50,000,000 of our securities, on terms to be determined at the time of the offering. Our securities may be offered at prices and on terms to be disclosed in one or more prospectus supplements.

Our securities may be offered directly to one or more purchasers by us or through agents designated from time to time by us, or to or through underwriters or dealers. The prospectus supplement relating to the offering will disclose the terms of the offering, including the name or names of any agents or underwriters involved in the sale of our securities by us, the purchase price, and any fee, commission or discount arrangement between us and our agents or underwriters or among our underwriters or the basis upon which such amount may be calculated. See “Plan of Distribution.” We may not sell any of our securities directly or through agents, underwriters or dealers without delivery of a prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of our securities.

Set forth below is additional information regarding the offering of our securities:

 

Use of proceeds

We intend to use substantially all of the net proceeds from the sale of our securities to make investments in middle-market companies in accordance with our investment objective and strategies described in this prospectus, and for general corporate purposes. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to reduce any of our outstanding borrowings. Pending such use, we will invest the net proceeds primarily in high quality, short-term debt securities consistent with our business development company election and our election to be taxed as a RIC. See “Use of Proceeds.”

Investment Advisory and Management Agreement

Saratoga Investment Advisors serves as our investment adviser. Our investment adviser was formed in 2010 as a Delaware limited liability company and became our investment advisor in July 2010. Subject to the overall supervision of our board of directors, Saratoga Investment Advisors manages our day-to-day operations and provides investment advisory and management services to us. Under the terms of the Management Agreement, Saratoga Investment Advisors:

 

    determines the composition of our portfolio, the nature and timing of the changes to our portfolio and the manner of implementing such changes;

 

    identifies, evaluates and negotiates the structure of the investments we make (including performing due diligence on our prospective portfolio companies);

 

    closes and monitors the investments we make; and

 

    determines the securities and other assets that we purchase, retain or sell.

 

  Pursuant to the Management Agreement with Saratoga Investment Advisors, we pay Saratoga Investment Advisors a fee for investment advisory and management services consisting of two components—a base management fee and an incentive fee.

 



 

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  The base management fee is paid quarterly in arrears, and equals 1.75% per annum of our gross assets (other than cash or cash equivalents but including assets purchased with borrowed funds) and calculated at the end of each fiscal quarter based on the average value of our gross assets (other than cash or cash equivalents but including assets purchased with borrowed funds) as of the end of such fiscal quarter and the end of the immediate prior fiscal quarter. Base management fees for any partial month or quarter are appropriately pro-rated.

 

  The incentive fee has the following two parts:

 

  The first part is calculated and payable quarterly in arrears based on our pre-incentive fee net investment income for the immediately preceding fiscal quarter. Pre-incentive fee net investment income means interest income, dividend income and any other income (including any other fees such as commitment, origination, structuring, diligence, managerial and consulting fees or other fees that we receive from portfolio companies) accrued during the fiscal quarter, minus our operating expenses for the quarter (including the base management fee, expenses payable under the administration agreement, and any interest expense and dividends paid on any issued and outstanding preferred stock or debt security, but excluding the incentive fee). Pre-incentive fee net investment income includes, in the case of investments with a deferred interest feature (such as market discount, debt instruments with payment-in-kind interest, preferred stock with payment-in-kind dividends and zero coupon securities), accrued income that we have not yet received in cash. Pre-incentive fee net investment income does not include any realized capital gains, realized capital losses or unrealized capital appreciation or depreciation. Pre-incentive fee net investment income, expressed as a rate of return on the value of our net assets (defined as total assets less liabilities) at the end of the immediately preceding fiscal quarter, is compared to a “hurdle rate” of 1.875% per quarter, subject to a “catch up”. The base management fee is calculated prior to giving effect to the payment of any incentive fees.

 

 

We pay Saratoga Investment Advisors an incentive fee with respect to our pre-incentive fee net investment income in each fiscal quarter as follows: (A) no incentive fee in any fiscal quarter in which our pre-incentive fee net investment income does not exceed the hurdle rate; (B) 100.0% of our pre-incentive fee net investment income with respect to that portion of such pre-incentive fee net investment income, if any, that exceeds the hurdle rate but is less than or equal to 2.344% in any fiscal quarter is payable to Saratoga Investment Advisors; and (C) 20.0% of the amount of our pre-incentive fee net investment income, if any, that exceeds 2.344% in any fiscal quarter. We refer to the amount specified in clause (B) as the “catch-up.” The “catch-up” provision is intended to provide Saratoga Investment Advisors with an incentive fee of 20.0% on all of our pre-incentive fee net investment income as if a hurdle rate did not apply when our

 



 

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pre-incentive fee net investment income exceeds 2.344% in any fiscal quarter. There is no accumulation of amounts from quarter to quarter on either the hurdle rate or the parameters set by the “catch-up” mechanism or any clawback of amounts previously paid to Saratoga Investment Advisers if subsequent quarters are below the quarterly hurdle or the “catch-up” parameters. Furthermore, there is no delay of payment to Saratoga Investment Advisers if prior quarters are below the quarterly hurdle or “catch-up.” Notwithstanding the foregoing, with respect to any period ending on or prior to December 31, 2010, Saratoga Investment Advisors was only entitled to 20.0% of the amount of our pre-incentive fee net investment income, if any, that exceeded 1.875% in any fiscal quarter without any catch-up provision. These calculations are appropriately pro-rated when such calculations are applicable for any period of less than three months. See “Management Agreements”.

 

Administration Agreement

Pursuant to a separate administration agreement, Saratoga Investment Advisors, who also serves as our administrator, furnishes us with office facilities, equipment and clerical, book-keeping and record keeping services. Under the administration agreement, our administrator also performs, or oversees the performance of, our required administrative services, which include, among other things, being responsible for the financial records which we are required to maintain, preparing reports for our stockholders and reports required to be filed with the SEC. In addition, our administrator assists us in determining and publishing our net asset value, oversees the preparation and filing of our tax returns and the printing and dissemination of reports to our stockholders, and generally oversees the payment of our expenses and the performance of administrative and professional services rendered to us by others. Payments under the administration agreement equal an amount based upon our allocable portion of our administrator’s overhead in performing its obligations under the administration agreement, including rent and our allocable portion of the cost of our officers and their respective staffs relating to the performance of services under this agreement (including travel expenses). Our allocable portion is based on the proportion that our total assets bears to the total assets administered or managed by our administrator. Under the administration agreement, our administrator also provides managerial assistance, on our behalf, to those portfolio companies who accept our offer of assistance. The administration agreement may be terminated by either party without penalty upon 60 days’ written notice to the other party. The amount payable by us under the administration agreement was capped at $1.0 million for the initial two year term that began on July 10, 2010, and for subsequent annual renewals of the agreement. On October 5, 2016, our board of directors approved the renewal of the administration agreement for an additional one-year term and determined to increase the cap on the payment or reimbursement of expenses by us thereunder to $1.5 million for the additional one-year term, effective November 1, 2016. See “Management Agreements”.

 



 

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Distributions

Our distributions, if any, will be determined by our board of directors and paid out of assets legally available for distribution. Prior to January 2009, we paid quarterly distributions to our stockholders. However, in January 2009, we suspended the practice of paying quarterly distributions to our stockholders and only paid five dividend distributions (December 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010 and 2009) to our stockholders through December 2013, which distributions were made with a combination of cash and the issuance of shares of our common stock. On September 24, 2014, our board of directors adopted a new dividend policy pursuant to which we will begin to again pay a regular quarterly cash distributions to our shareholders. In this regard, most recently our board of directors declared a distribution in the amount of $0.45 per share for the fiscal quarter ended November 30, 2016. The distribution for the fiscal quarter ended November 30, 2016 has a payment date of February 9, 2017 to all stockholders of record at the close of business on January 31, 2016. As disclosed in the table under “Price Range of Common Stock and Distributions,” beginning on page 49 of this prospectus, our board of directors has continued to declare regular quarterly cash distribution, to our shareholders since adopting our new dividend policy.

 

Taxation

We elected to be treated for federal income tax purposes as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code. Accordingly, we generally will not pay corporate-level federal income taxes on any net ordinary income or realized net capital gains that we distribute to our stockholders as dividends. To maintain our RIC tax treatment, we must meet specified source-of- income and asset diversification requirements and distribute annually at least 90% of our net ordinary income and realized net short-term capital gains in excess of realized net long-term capital losses, if any. Depending on the level of taxable income earned in a tax year, we may choose to carry forward taxable income in excess of current year distributions into the next tax year and pay a 4% excise tax on such income. Any such carryover taxable income must be distributed through a dividend declared prior to filing the final tax return related to the year which generated such taxable income. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.”

 

Dividend reinvestment plan

We maintain an “opt out” dividend reinvestment plan for our common stockholders. As a result, if we declare a dividend, then stockholders’ cash dividends will be automatically reinvested in additional shares of our common stock, unless they specifically “opt out” of the dividend reinvestment plan so as to receive cash dividends. Stockholders who receive distributions in the form of our common stock will be subject to the same federal, state and local tax consequences as stockholders who elect to receive their distributions in cash, and will need to pay any such taxes from other sources in light of the fact that their distributions will be reinvested in additional shares of the Company’s common stock. See “Dividend Reinvestment Plan” for a description of the plan and information on how to “opt out” of the plan.

 



 

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FEES AND EXPENSES

The following table is intended to assist you in understanding the costs and expenses that an investor in this offering will bear directly or indirectly. We caution you that some of the percentages indicated in the table below are estimates and may vary. Moreover, the information set forth below does not include any transaction costs and expenses that investors will incur in connection with each offering of our securities pursuant to this prospectus. As a result, investors are urged to read the “Fees and Expenses” table contained in any corresponding prospectus supplement to fully understanding the actual transaction costs and expenses they will incur in connection with each such offering. Except where the context suggests otherwise, whenever this prospectus contains a reference to fees or expenses paid by “you,” “us” or “Saratoga Investment Corp.,” or that “we” will pay fees or expenses, stockholders will indirectly bear such fees or expenses as investors in Saratoga Investment Corp.

 

Stockholder transaction expenses (as a percentage of offering price):

 

Sales load paid

      —  % (1) 

Offering expenses borne by us

      —  % (2) 

Dividend reinvestment plan expenses

      None (3) 
   

 

 

 

Total stockholder transaction expenses paid

      —  %  

Annual estimated expenses (as a percentage of average net assets attributable to common stock):

   

Management fees

      3.4% (4) 

Incentive fees payable under the Management Agreement

      2.1% (5) 

Interest payments on borrowed funds

      6.0% (6) 

Other expenses

      3.0% (7) 
   

 

 

 

Total annual expenses

      14.5% (8) 

 

(1) In the event that the shares of common stock to which this prospectus relates are sold to or through underwriters, a corresponding prospectus supplement will disclose the applicable sales load.
(2) The prospectus supplement corresponding to each offering will disclose the applicable offering expenses and total stockholder transaction expenses.
(3) The expenses associated with the administration of our dividend reinvestment plan are included in “Other expenses.” The participants in the dividend reinvestment plan will pay a pro rata share of brokerage commissions incurred with respect to open market purchases, if any, made by the administrator under the plan. For more details about the plan, see “Dividend Reinvestment Plan.”
(4) Our base management fee under the Management Agreement with Saratoga Investment Advisors is based on our gross assets, which is defined as our total assets, including those acquired using borrowings for investment purposes, but excluding cash and cash equivalents. See “Investment Advisory and Management Agreement.” The fact that our base management fee is payable based upon our gross assets, rather than our net assets (i.e., total assets after deduction of any liabilities, including borrowings) means that our base management fee as a percentage of net assets attributable to common stock will increase when we utilize leverage.
(5) The incentive fee consists of two parts. The first part is calculated and payable quarterly in arrears and equals 20% of our “pre-incentive fee net investment income” for the immediately preceding quarter, subject to a preferred return, or “hurdle,” and a “catch up” feature. For this purpose, “pre-incentive fee net investment income” means interest income, dividend income and any other income (including any other fees, such as commitment, origination, structuring, diligence, managerial and consulting fees or other fees that we receive from portfolio companies) accrued by us during the fiscal quarter, minus our operating expenses for the quarter (including the base management fee, expenses payable under the administration agreement described below, and any interest expense and dividends paid on any issued and outstanding preferred stock, but excluding the incentive fee).

 



 

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The second part of the incentive fee is determined and payable in arrears as of the end of each fiscal year (or upon termination of the Management Agreement) and equals 20% of our “incentive fee capital gains,” which equals our realized capital gains on a cumulative basis from May 31, 2010 through the end of the year, if any, computed net of all realized capital losses and unrealized capital depreciation on a cumulative basis, less the aggregate amount of any previously paid capital gain incentive fee. Under the Management Agreement, the capital gains portion of the incentive fee is based on realized gains and realized and unrealized losses from May 31, 2010. Therefore, realized and unrealized losses incurred prior to such time will not be taken into account when calculating the capital gains portion of the incentive fee, and Saratoga Investment Advisors will be entitled to 20% of incentive fee capital gains that arise after May 31, 2010. In addition, the cost basis for computing realized gains and losses on investments held by us as of May 31, 2010 will equal the fair value of such investments as of such date. We estimate this as zero for purposes of this table as these fees are hard to predict, as they are based on capital gains and losses. See “Investment Advisory and Management Agreement.”

(6) We may borrow funds from time to time to make investments to the extent we determine that the economic situation is conducive to doing so. The 6.0% figure in the table includes all expected borrowing costs in connection with the secured revolving credit facility we have with Madison Capital Funding LLC. The costs associated with our outstanding borrowings are indirectly borne by our stockholders. We do not expect to issue any preferred stock during the next twelve months and, therefore, have not included the cost of issuing and servicing preferred stock in the table. In addition, all of the commitment fees, interest expense, amortized financing costs of our Credit Facility, SBA debentures, and the 2023 Notes, and the fees and expenses of issuing and servicing any other borrowings or leverage that we expect to incur during the next twelve months are included in the table and expense example presentation below.
(7) “Other expenses” are based on estimated amounts for the current fiscal year and include our overhead expenses, including payments under our administration agreement based on our allocable portion of overhead and other expenses incurred by Saratoga Investment Advisors in performing its obligations under the administration agreement. See “Administration Agreement.”
(8) This figure includes all of the fees and expenses of our wholly-owned subsidiaries, Saratoga Investment Corp SBIC, LP and Saratoga Investment Funding LLC. Furthermore, this table reflects all of the fees and expenses borne by us with respect to our investment in Saratoga CLO.

Example

The following example demonstrates the projected dollar amount of total cumulative expenses over various periods with respect to a hypothetical investment in our common stock. In calculating the following expense amounts, we have assumed that we would have no additional leverage and our annual operating expenses would remain at the levels set forth in the table above. In the event that shares to which this prospectus relates are sold to or through underwriters, a corresponding prospectus supplement will restate this example to reflect the applicable sales load and offering expenses.

 

     1 Year      3 Years      5 Years      10 Years  

You would pay the following expenses on a $1,000 investment, assuming a 5% annual return on portfolio

   $ 160      $ 505      $ 886      $ 2,016  

This example and the expenses in the table above should not be considered a representation of our future expenses, and actual expenses (including the cost of debt, if any, and other expenses) may be greater or less than those shown.

The foregoing table is to assist you in understanding the various costs and expenses that an investor in our common stock will bear directly or indirectly. While the example assumes, as required by the SEC, a 5% annual

 



 

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return, our performance will vary and may result in a return greater or less than 5%. The example assumes that the 5% annual return is generated entirely through the realization of capital gains on our assets and, as a result, triggers the payment of an incentive fee on such capital gains under the Management Agreement. The “pre-incentive fee net investment income” under the Management Agreement, which, assuming a 5% annual return, would either not be payable or have an insignificant impact on the expense amounts shown above, is not included in the example. If we achieve sufficient returns on our investments, including through the realization of capital gains, to trigger an incentive fee of a material amount, our expenses, and returns to our investors, would be higher.

While the example assumes reinvestment of all dividends and distributions at net asset value, participants in our dividend reinvestment plan will receive a number of shares of our common stock, determined by dividing the total dollar amount of the dividend payable to a participant by either (i) the greater of (x) the net asset value of our common stock or (y) 95% of the market price per share of our common stock at the close of trading on the payment date fixed by our board of directors in the event that we use newly issued shares to satisfy the share requirements of the dividend reinvestment plan or (ii) the average purchase price, including any brokerage charges or other charges, of all shares of common stock purchased by the administrator of the dividend reinvestment plan in the event that shares are purchased in the open market to satisfy the share requirements of the dividend reinvestment plan, which may be at, above or below net asset value. See “Dividend Reinvestment Plan” for additional information regarding our dividend reinvestment plan.

 



 

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SELECTED FINANCIAL AND OTHER DATA

The following selected financial and other data reflects the consolidated financial condition and the consolidated statement of operations of Saratoga as of and for the years ended February 29, 2016, February 28, 2015, February 28, 2014, February 28, 2013, and February 29, 2012. The selected financial and other data have been derived from our consolidated financial statements which have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, whose report thereon is included in this registration statement. The financial information as of and for the nine months ended November 30, 2016 and 2015 was derived from our unaudited financial statements and related notes. In the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting solely of normal recurring accruals, considered necessary for the fair presentation of financial statements for the interim periods, have been included. The data should be read in conjunction with our financial statements and notes thereto and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” which are included in this prospectus. The historical data is not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for any future period.

 

    Nine Months
Ended

November 30,
2016
    Nine Months
Ended

November 30,
2015
    Year Ended
February 29,
2016
    Year Ended
February 28,
2015
    Year Ended
February 28,
2014 (5)
    Year Ended
February 28,
2013 (5)
    Year Ended
February 29,
2012 (5)
 
    (dollar
amounts in
thousands,
except share
and per share
numbers)
                                     

Income Statement Data:

             

Interest and related portfolio income:

             

Interest

  $ 22,057     $ 19,980     $ 26,876     $ 24,688     $ 20,187     $ 14,450     $ 11,262  

Management fee and other income

    2,742       2,275       3,174       2,687       2,706       2,557       2,250  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total interest and related portfolio income

    24,799       22,255       30,050       27,375       22,893       17,007       13,512  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Expenses:

             

Interest and debt financing expenses

    7,107       6,241       8,456       7,375       6,084       2,540       1,298  

Base management and incentive management
fees(1)

    5,981       5,527       6,761       6,705       4,266       4,710       3,339  

Administrator expenses

    992       850       1,175       1,000       1,000       1,000       1,000  

Administrative and other

    2,158       2,181       2,866       2,327       2,669       2,287       2,638  

Expense reimbursement

    —         —      

 

—  

 

    —         —         —         —    
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses after reimbursements

    16,238       14,799       19,258       17,407       14,019       10,537       8,275  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net investment income before income taxes

    8,561       7,456       10,792       9,968       8,874       6,470       5,237  

Income tax expenses, including excise tax expense (credit)

    —         (123     114       294       —         —         —    
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net investment income

  $ 8,561     $ 7,579     $ 10,678     $ 9,674     $ 8,874     $ 6,470     $ 5,237  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 



 

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    Nine Months
Ended

November 30,
2016
    Nine Months
Ended

November 30,
2015
    Year Ended
February 29,
2016
    Year Ended
February 28,
2015
    Year Ended
February 28,
2014 (5)
    Year Ended
February 28,
2013 (5)
    Year Ended
February 29,
2012 (5)
 
    (dollar amounts in thousands, except share and per share numbers)  

Realized and unrealized gain (loss) on investments and derivatives:

             

Net realized gain (loss)

  $  12,300     $ 4,231     $ 226     $ 3,276     $ 1,271     $ 431     $ (12,186

Net change in unrealized gain (loss)

    (10,728     239       741       (1,943     (1,648     7,143       19,760  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total net gain (loss)

    1,572       4,470       967       1,333       (377     7,574       7,574  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net increase (decrease) in net assets resulting from operations

  $ 10,133     $ 12,049     $ 11,645     $ 11,007     $ 8,497     $ 14,044     $ 12,811  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Per Share:

             

Earnings (loss) per common share—basic and diluted(2)

  $ 1.77     $ 2.18     $ 2.09     $ 2.04     $ 1.73     $ 3.42     $ 3.73  

Net investment income per share—basic and
diluted(2)

  $ 1.49     $ 1.37     $ 1.91     $ 1.80     $ 1.80     $ 1.57     $ 1.52  

Net realized and unrealized gain (loss) per share—basic and diluted(2)

  $ 0.28     $ 0.81     $ 0.18     $ 0.24     $ (0.07   $ 1.85     $ 2.21  

Dividends declared per common share(3)

  $ 1.48     $ 1.96     $ 2.36     $ 0.40     $ 2.65     $ 4.25     $ 3.00  

Dilutive impact of dividends paid in stock on net asset value per share(4)

  $  (0.14)     $ (0.33)     $ (0.37)     $ (0.02   $ (0.71   $ (1.40   $ (1.99

Net asset value per share

  $ 22.21     $ 22.59     $ 22.06     $ 22.70     $ 21.08     $ 22.71     $ 24.94  

Statement of Assets and Liabilities Data:

             

Investment assets at fair value

  $  277,570     $  241,038     $  283,996     $ 240,538     $ 205,845     $ 155,080     $ 95,360  

Total assets

    305,533       271,743       295,047       263,560       215,168       172,321       124,291  

Total debt outstanding

    169,821       136,065       160,749       136,900       98,300       60,300       20,000  

Stockholders’ equity

    127,680       127,273       125,150       122,599       113,428       107,438       96,689  

Net asset value per common share

  $ 22.21     $ 22.59     $ 22.06     $ 22.70     $ 21.08     $ 22.71     $ 24.94  

Common shares outstanding at end of period

    5,748,247       5,634,115       5,672,227       5,401,899       5,379,616       4,730,116       3,876,661  

Other Data:

             

Investments funded

  $ 85,851     $ 57,429     $ 109,191     $ 104,872     $ 121,074     $ 71,596     $ 38,679  

Principal collections related to investment repayments or sales

  $ 94,691     $ 62,677     $ 68,174     $ 73,257     $ 71,607     $ 21,488     $ 33,568  

Number of investments at end of period

    53       54       60       64       60       47       33  

Weighted average yield of income producing debt investments—Non-control/ non-affiliate

    10.70     10.57     10.82     11.07     10.62     11.26     11.88

Weighted average yield on income producing debt investments—Control

    12.23     18.90     16.40     25.22     18.55     27.11     20.17

 



 

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(1) See note 6 in consolidated financial statements contained elsewhere herein.
(2) For the nine months ended November 30, 2016 and November 30, 2015, amounts are calculated using weighted average common shares outstanding of 5,735,443 and 5,533,094, respectively. For the years ended February 29, 2016, February 28, 2015, February 28, 2014, February 28, 2013 and February 29, 2012, calculated using weighted average common shares outstanding of 5,582,453, 5,385,049, 4,920,517, 4,110,484, and 3,434,345, respectively.
(3) Calculated using the shares outstanding at ex-dividend date.
(4) Dilutive effect of the issuance of shares of common stock below net asset value per share in connection with the satisfaction of the Company’s annual RIC distribution requirement. See “Price Range of Common Stock and Distributions—Dividend Policy.”
(5) During the year ended February 28, 2015, the Company identified errors related to the accounting for the capital gains portion of the incentive fee for the years ended February 28, 2014, February 28, 2013 and February 29, 2012, as well as the cumulative impact of these errors as of February 28, 2014. The Company assessed the materiality of these errors and concluded they were not material to any prior annual periods, but the cumulative impact of correcting them would be quantitatively material to the results of operations of the Company for the year ended February 28, 2015, if the entire adjustment was recorded in that period. The corrections for the errors are reflected in the selected financial and other data.

 



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a number of significant risks. You should carefully consider these risks, together with all of the other information included in this prospectus, before making an investment in our securities. The risks set forth below are the principal risks with respect to the Company generally and with respect to business development companies, they may not be the only risks we face. This section nonetheless describes the principal risk factors associated with investment in the Company specifically, as well as those factors generally associated with investment in a company with investment objectives, investment policies, capital structure or trading markets similar to the Company’s. If any of the risks occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. In such case, our net asset value and the trading price of our securities could decline and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to Our Business and Structure

Market volatility and the condition of the debt and equity capital markets could negatively impact our financial condition and stock price.

Beginning in 2007, global credit and other financial markets began to suffer substantial stress, volatility, illiquidity and disruption. These forces reached extraordinary levels in 2008, resulting in the bankruptcy of, the acquisition of, or government intervention in the affairs of several major domestic and international financial institutions. In particular, the financial services sector was negatively impacted by significant write-offs as the value of the assets held by financial firms declined, impairing their capital positions and abilities to lend and invest. We believe that such value declines were exacerbated by widespread forced liquidations as leveraged holders of financial assets, faced with declining prices, were compelled to sell to meet margin requirements and maintain compliance with applicable capital standards. Such forced liquidations also impaired or eliminated many investors and investment vehicles, leading to a decline in the supply of capital for investment and depressed pricing levels for many assets. These events significantly diminished overall confidence in the debt and equity markets, engendered unprecedented declines in the values of certain assets, and caused extreme economic uncertainty. If market conditions similar to these were to recur, our assets could experience a similar decline in value, among other negative impacts to the company.

Since 2009, the global credit and other financial market conditions have improved as stability has increased throughout the international financial system and many public market indices have experienced positive total returns. However, the global macroeconomic environment and recovery from the downturn has been challenging and inconsistent. Instability in the global credit markets, the impact of periodic uncertainty regarding the U.S. federal budget, the instability in the geopolitical environment in many parts of the world, sovereign debt conditions in Europe and other disruptions may continue to put pressure on economic conditions in the U.S. and abroad.

We may be obligated to pay Saratoga Investment Advisors incentive fees even if we incur a net loss, or there is a decline in the value of our portfolio.

Saratoga Investment Advisors is entitled to incentive fees for each fiscal quarter in an amount equal to a percentage of the excess of our investment income for that quarter (before deducting incentive compensation, but net of operating expenses and certain other items) above a threshold return for that quarter. Our pre-incentive fee net investment income, for incentive compensation purposes, excludes realized and unrealized capital gains or losses that we may incur in the fiscal quarter, even if such capital gains or losses result in a net gain or loss on our consolidated statements of operations for that quarter. Thus, we may be required to pay Saratoga Investment Advisors incentive fees for a fiscal quarter even if there is a decline in the value of our portfolio or we incur a net loss for that quarter.

 

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Under the terms of the Management Agreement, we may have to pay incentive fees to Saratoga Investment Advisors in connection with the sale of an investment that is sold at a price higher than the fair value of such investment on May 31, 2010, even if we incur a loss on the sale of such investment.

Incentive fees on capital gains paid to Saratoga Investment Advisors under the Management Agreement equals 20.0% of our “incentive fee capital gains,” which equals our realized capital gains on a cumulative basis from May 31, 2010 through the end of the year, if any, computed net of all realized capital losses and unrealized capital depreciation on a cumulative basis, less the aggregate amount of any previously paid capital gain incentive fee. Under the Management Agreement, the capital gains portion of the incentive fee is based on realized gains and realized and unrealized losses from May 31, 2010. Therefore, realized and unrealized losses incurred prior to such time will not be taken into account when calculating the capital gains portion of the incentive fee, and Saratoga Investment Advisors will be entitled to 20.0% of the incentive fee capital gains that arise after May 31, 2010. In addition, the cost basis for computing realized gains and losses on investments held by us as of May 31, 2010 will equal the fair value of such investments as of such date. See our Form 10-Q for the quarter ended May 31, 2010 that was filed with the SEC on July 15, 2010 for the fair value and other information related to our investments as of such date. As a result, we may be required to pay incentive fees to Saratoga Investment Advisors on the sale of an investment even if we incur a realized loss on such investment, so long as the investment is sold for an amount greater than its fair value as of May 31, 2010.

The way in which the base management and incentive fees under the Management Agreement is determined may encourage Saratoga Investment Advisors to take actions that may not be in our best interests.

The incentive fee payable by us to our investment adviser may create an incentive for it to make investments on our behalf that are risky or more speculative than would be the case in the absence of such compensation arrangement, which could result in higher investment losses, particularly during cyclical economic downturns. The way in which the incentive fee payable to our investment adviser is determined, which is calculated separately in two components as a percentage of the income (subject to a hurdle rate) and as a percentage of the realized gain on invested capital, may encourage our investment adviser to use leverage to increase the return on our investments or otherwise manipulate our income so as to recognize income in quarters where the hurdle rate is exceeded. Moreover, we pay Saratoga Investment Advisors a base management fee based on our total assets, including any investments made with borrowings, which may create an incentive for it to cause us to incur more leverage than is prudent, or not to repay our outstanding indebtedness when it may be advantageous for us to do so, in order to maximize its compensation. Under certain circumstances, the use of leverage may increase the likelihood of default, which would disfavor the holders of our securities.

The incentive fee payable by us to our investment adviser also may create an incentive for our investment adviser to invest on our behalf in instruments that have a deferred interest feature. Under these investments, we would accrue the interest over the life of the investment but would not receive the cash income from the investment until the end of the investment’s term, if at all. Our net investment income used to calculate the income portion of our incentive fee, however, includes accrued interest. Thus, a portion of the incentive fee would be based on income that we have not yet received in cash and may never receive in cash if the portfolio company is unable to satisfy such interest payment obligation to us. Consequently, while we may make incentive fee payments on income accruals that we may not collect in the future and with respect to which we do not have a “claw back” right against our investment adviser per se, the amount of accrued income written off in any period will reduce the income in the period in which such write-off was taken and may thereby reduce such period’s incentive fee payment.

In addition, Saratoga Investment Advisors receives a quarterly income incentive fee based, in part, on our pre-incentive fee net investment income, if any, for the immediately preceding calendar quarter. This income incentive fee is subject to a fixed quarterly hurdle rate before providing an income incentive fee return to Saratoga Investment Advisors. This fixed hurdle rate was determined when then current interest rates were relatively low on a historical basis. Thus, if interest rates rise, it would become easier for our investment income

 

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to exceed the hurdle rate and, as a result, more likely that Saratoga Investment Advisors will receive an income incentive fee than if interest rates on our investments remained constant or decreased.

Moreover, our investment adviser receives the incentive fee based, in part, upon net capital gains realized on our investments. Unlike the portion of the incentive fee based on income, there is no performance threshold applicable to the portion of the incentive fee based on net capital gains. As a result, our investment adviser may have a tendency to invest more in investments that are likely to result in capital gains as compared to income producing securities. Such a practice could result in our investing in more speculative securities than would otherwise be the case, which could result in higher investment losses, particularly during economic downturns.

Our board of directors will seek to ensure that Saratoga Investment Advisors is acting in our best interests and that any conflict of interest faced by Saratoga Investment Advisors in its capacity as our investment adviser does not negatively impact us.

The base management fee we pay to Saratoga Investment Advisors may induce it to influence our leverage, which may be contrary to our interest.

We pay Saratoga Investment Advisors a quarterly base management fee based on the value of our total assets (including any assets acquired with leverage). Accordingly, Saratoga Investment Advisors has an economic incentive to increase our leverage. Our board of directors monitors the conflicts presented by this compensation structure by approving the amount of leverage that we incur. If our leverage is increased, we will be exposed to increased risk of loss, bear the increase cost of issuing and servicing such senior indebtedness, and will be subject to any additional covenant restrictions imposed on us in an indenture or other instrument or by the applicable lender.

We employ leverage, which magnifies the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested and may increase the risk of investing in us.

Borrowings, also known as leverage, magnify the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested and, therefore, increase the risks associated with investing in us. We borrow from and issue senior debt securities to banks and other lenders that is secured by a lien on our assets. Holders of these senior securities have fixed dollar claims on our assets that are superior to the claims of the holders of our securities. Leverage is generally considered a speculative investment technique. Any increase in our income in excess of interest payable on our outstanding indebtedness would cause our net income to increase more than it would have had we not incurred leverage, while any decrease in our income would cause net income to decline more sharply than it would have had we not incurred leverage. Such a decline could negatively affect our ability to make common stock distributions or scheduled debt payments, including with respect to the 2023 Notes. There can be no assurance that our leveraging strategy will be successful.

Our outstanding indebtedness imposes, and additional debt we may incur in the future will likely impose, financial and operating covenants that restrict our business activities, including limitations that could hinder our ability to finance additional loans and investments or to make the distributions required to maintain our status as a RIC. A failure to add new debt facilities or issue additional debt securities or other evidences of indebtedness in lieu of or in addition to existing indebtedness could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

As of November 30, 2016, we had $112.7 million outstanding indebtedness guaranteed by the SBA and $61.8 million of outstanding 2020 Notes. This debt requires periodic payments of interest. The weighted average interest rate charged on our borrowings as of November 30, 2016 was 4.73% per annum (exclusive of deferred financing costs). We will need to generate sufficient cash flow to make these required interest payments. In order for us to cover our annual interest payments on indebtedness, we must achieve annual returns on our November 30, 2016 total assets of at least 2.6%.

 

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As of November 30, there was no outstanding balance under the Credit Facility. As of November 30, we had issued $112.7 million SBA-guaranteed debentures and $61.8 million of the 2020 Notes. On December 21, 2016, we issued $74.5 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2023 Notes. On January 13, 2017, we redeemed the $61.8 million of outstanding 2020 Notes using the proceeds from the issuance of the 2023 Notes, leaving $9.8 million in net proceeds from the 2023 Notes offering. We may incur additional indebtedness in the future, including, but not limited to, borrowings under the Credit Facility or the issuance of additional debt securities in one or more public or private offerings, although there can be no assurance that we will be successful in doing so. Our ability to service our debt depends largely on our financial performance and is subject to prevailing economic conditions and competitive pressures. The amount of leverage that we employ at any particular time will depend on our management’s and our Board of Directors’ assessment of market and other factors at the time of any proposed borrowing.

Illustration. The following table illustrates the effect of leverage on returns from an investment in our common stock assuming various annual returns, net of expenses. The calculations in the table below are hypothetical and actual returns may be higher or lower than those appearing below:

Assumed Return on Our Portfolio(1)

(net of expenses)

 

     –10.0%     –5.0%     0.0%      5.0%     10.0%  

Corresponding net return to common stockholder

     –30.0     –18.1     –6.2      5.7     17.5

 

(1) Assumes $300.3 million in average total assets, $170.0 million in average debt outstanding, $126.4 million in average net assets and an average interest rate of 4.73%. Actual interest payments may be different.

Saratoga Investment Advisors’ liability is limited under the Management Agreement and we will indemnify Saratoga Investments Advisors against certain liabilities, which may lead it to act in a riskier manner on our behalf than it would when acting for its own account.

Saratoga Investment Advisors has not assumed any responsibility to us other than to render the services described in the Management Agreement. Pursuant to the Management Agreement, Saratoga Investment Advisors and its officers and employees are not liable to us for their acts under the Management Agreement absent willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard in the performance of their duties. We have agreed to indemnify, defend and protect Saratoga Investment Advisors and its officers and employees with respect to all damages, liabilities, costs and expenses resulting from acts of Saratoga Investment Advisors not arising out of willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard in the performance of their duties under the Management Agreement. These protections may lead Saratoga Investment Advisors to act in a riskier manner when acting on our behalf than it would when acting for its own account.

Substantially all of our assets are subject to security interests under our Credit Facility or claims of the SBA with respect to SBA-guaranteed debentures we may issue and if we default on our obligations thereunder, we may suffer adverse consequences, including the foreclosure on our assets.

Substantially all of our assets are pledged as collateral under the Credit Facility or are subject to a superior claim over the holders of our common stock or the 2023 Notes by the SBA pursuant to the SBA-guaranteed debentures. If we default on our obligations under the Credit Facility or the SBA-guaranteed debentures, Madison Capital Funding and/or the SBA may have the right to foreclose upon and sell, or otherwise transfer, the collateral subject to their security interests or superior claim. In such event, we may be forced to sell our investments to raise funds to repay our outstanding borrowings in order to avoid foreclosure and these forced sales may be at times and at prices we would not consider advantageous. Moreover, such deleveraging of our company could significantly impair our ability to effectively operate our business in the manner in which we have historically operated.

 

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In addition, if Madison Capital Funding exercises its right to sell the assets pledged under the Credit Facility, such sales may be completed at distressed sale prices, thereby diminishing or potentially eliminating the amount of cash available to us after repayment of the amounts outstanding under the Credit Facility.

We are exposed to risks associated with changes in interest rates including potential effects on our cost of capital and net investment income.

General interest rate fluctuations and changes in credit spreads on floating rate loans may have a substantial negative impact on our investments and investment opportunities and, accordingly, may have a material adverse effect on our rate of return on invested capital. In addition, an increase in interest rates would make it more expensive to use debt to finance our investments. Decreases in credit spreads on debt that pays a floating rate of return would have an impact on the income generation of our floating rate assets. Trading prices for debt that pays a fixed rate of return tend to fall as interest rates rise. Trading prices tend to fluctuate more for fixed rate securities that have longer maturities. Although we have no policy governing the maturities of our investments, under current market conditions we expect that we will invest in a portfolio of debt generally having maturities of up to ten years. This means that we will be subject to greater risk (other things being equal) than an entity investing solely in shorter-term securities.

Because we may borrow to fund our investments, a portion of our net investment income may be dependent upon the difference between the interest rate at which we borrow funds and the interest rate at which we invest these funds. A portion of our investments will have fixed interest rates, while a portion of our borrowings will likely have floating interest rates. As a result, a significant change in market interest rates could have a material adverse effect on our net investment income. In periods of rising interest rates, our cost of funds could increase, which would reduce our net investment income. We may hedge against such interest rate fluctuations by using standard hedging instruments such as futures, options and forward contracts, subject to applicable legal requirements, including without limitation, all necessary registrations (or exemptions from registration) with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. These activities may limit our ability to participate in the benefits of lower interest rates with respect to the hedged borrowings. Adverse developments resulting from changes in interest rates or hedging transactions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

There are significant potential conflicts of interest which could adversely impact our investment returns.

Our executive officers and directors, and the members of our investment adviser, serve or may serve as officers, directors or principals of entities that operate in the same or a related line of business as we do or of investment funds managed by our affiliates. Accordingly, they may have obligations to investors in those entities, the fulfillment of which might not be in the best interests of us or our stockholders. For example, Christian L. Oberbeck, our chief executive officer and managing member of our investment adviser, is the managing partner of Saratoga Partners, a middle market private equity investment firm. In addition, the principals of our investment adviser may manage other funds which may from time to time have overlapping investment objectives with those of us and accordingly invest in, whether principally or secondarily, asset classes similar to those targeted by us. If this should occur, the principals of our investment adviser will face conflicts of interest in the allocation of investment opportunities to us and such other funds. Although our investment professionals will endeavor to allocate investment opportunities in a fair and equitable manner, we and our common stockholders could be adversely affected in the event investment opportunities are allocated among us and other investment vehicles managed or sponsored by, or affiliated with, our executive officers, directors and investment adviser, and the members of our investment adviser.

 

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Changes in laws or regulations governing our operations, or changes in the interpretation thereof, and any failure by us to comply with laws or regulations governing our operations may adversely affect our business.

We are subject to regulation at the local, state and federal levels. These laws and regulations, as well as their interpretation, may be changed from time to time. Any change in these laws or regulations, or their interpretation, or any failure by us to comply with these laws or regulations may adversely affect our business.

We are dependent on information systems and systems failures could significantly disrupt our business, which may, in turn, negatively affect the market price of our common stock and our ability to pay dividends.

Our business is dependent on our and third parties’ communications and information systems. Any failure or interruption of those systems, including as a result of the termination of an agreement with any third-party service providers, could cause delays or other problems in our activities. Our financial, accounting, data processing, backup or other operating systems and facilities may fail to operate properly or become disabled or damaged as a result of a number of factors including events that are wholly or partially beyond our control and adversely affect our business. There could be:

 

    sudden electrical or telecommunications outages;

 

    natural disasters such as earthquakes, tornadoes and hurricanes;

 

    disease pandemics;

 

    events arising from local or larger scale political or social matters, including terrorist acts; and

 

    cyber-attacks.

These events, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and negatively affect the market price of our common stock and our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders.

Cybersecurity risks and cyber incidents may adversely affect our business by causing a disruption to our operations, a compromise or corruption of our confidential information and/or damage to our business relationships, all of which could negatively impact our business, results of operations or financial condition.

A cyber incident is considered to be any adverse event that threatens the confidentiality, integrity or availability of our information resources. These incidents may be an intentional attack or an unintentional event and could involve gaining unauthorized access to our information systems for purposes of misappropriating assets, stealing confidential information, corrupting data or causing operational disruption. The result of these incidents may include disrupted operations, misstated or unreliable financial data, liability for stolen information, misappropriation of assets, increased cybersecurity protection and insurance costs, litigation and damage to our business relationships. Any such attack could result in significant losses, reputational damage, litigation, regulatory fines or penalties, or otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to modify our protective measures and to investigate and remediate vulnerabilities or other exposures arising from operational and security risks. We face risks posed to our information systems, both internal and those provided to us by third-party service providers. We, our Adviser and its affiliates have implemented processes, procedures and internal controls to help mitigate cybersecurity risks and cyber intrusions, but these measures, as well as our increased awareness of the nature and extent of a risk of a cyber incident, may be ineffective and do not guarantee that a cyber incident will not occur or that our financial results, operations or confidential information will not be negatively impacted by such an incident.

Third parties with which we do business (including those that provide services to us) may also be sources or targets of cybersecurity or other technological risks. We outsource certain functions and these relationships allow for the storage and processing of our information and assets, as well as certain investor, counterparty, employee and borrower information. While we engage in actions to reduce our exposure resulting from outsourcing,

 

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ongoing threats may result in unauthorized access, loss, exposure or destruction of data, or other cybersecurity incidents, with increased costs and other consequences, including those described above. Privacy and information security laws and regulation changes, and compliance with those changes, may also result in cost increases due to system changes and the development of new administrative processes.

Regulations governing our operation as a BDC will affect our ability to raise additional capital.

Our business requires a substantial amount of additional capital. We may acquire additional capital from the issuance of senior securities or other indebtedness or the issuance of additional shares of our common stock. However, we may not be able to raise additional capital in the future on favorable terms or at all. We may issue debt securities or preferred securities, which we refer to collectively as “senior securities,” and we may borrow money from banks or other financial institutions, up to the maximum amount permitted by the 1940 Act.

Under the provisions of the 1940 Act, we are permitted, as a BDC, to incur indebtedness or issue senior securities only in amounts such that our asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, equals at least 200.0% after such incurrence or issuance. Our ability to issue different types of securities is also limited. Compliance with these requirements may unfavorably limit our investment opportunities and reduce our ability in comparison to other companies to profit from favorable spreads between the rates at which we can borrow and the rates at which we can lend. As a business development company, therefore, we may need to issue equity more frequently than our privately owned competitors, which may lead to greater stockholder dilution. With respect to certain types of senior securities, we must make provisions to prohibit any dividend distribution to our stockholders or the repurchase of certain of our securities, unless we meet the applicable asset coverage ratios at the time of the dividend distribution or repurchase. If the value of our assets declines, we may be unable to satisfy the asset coverage test. If that happens, we may be required to liquidate a portion of our investments and repay a portion of our indebtedness at a time when such sales may be disadvantageous in order to make dividend distributions or repurchase certain of our securities.

We are not generally able to issue and sell our common stock at a price below net asset value per share. We may, however, sell our common stock, or warrants, options or rights to acquire our common stock, at a price below the current net asset value of the common stock if our board of directors determines that such sale is in our best interests and the best interests of our stockholders, and our stockholders approve such sale. In any such case, the price at which our securities are to be issued and sold may not be less than a price which, in the determination of our board of directors, closely approximates the market value of such securities (less any commission or discount). If our common stock trades at a discount to net asset value, this restriction could adversely affect our ability to raise capital. We do not currently have stockholder approval of issuances below net asset value.

Pending legislation may allow us to incur additional leverage.

As a business development company, we are generally not permitted to incur indebtedness unless immediately after such borrowing we have an asset coverage for total borrowings of at least 200% (i.e., the amount of debt may not exceed 50% of the value of our assets). We have agreed in the covenant in the indenture governing the 2023 Notes not to violate this section of the 1940 Act, whether or not we continue to be subject to such provision, but giving effect, in either case, to any exemptive relief granted to us by the SEC. Recent legislation, if passed, would modify this section of the 1940 Act and increase the amount of debt that business development companies may incur. As a result, we may be able to incur additional indebtedness in the future.

The agreement governing our Credit Facility contains various covenants that, among other things, limits our discretion in operating our business and provides for certain minimum financial covenants.

The agreement governing the Credit Facility contains customary default provisions such as the termination or departure of certain “key persons” of Saratoga Investment Advisors, a material adverse change in our business and the failure to maintain certain minimum loan quality and performance standards. An event of default under

 

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the facility would result, among other things, in termination of the availability of further funds under the facility and an accelerated maturity date for all amounts outstanding under the facility, which would likely disrupt our business and, potentially, the portfolio companies whose loans we financed through the facility. This could reduce our revenues and, by delaying any cash payment allowed to us under the facility until the lender has been paid in full, reduce our liquidity and cash flow and impair our ability to grow our business and maintain our status as a RIC.

Each loan origination under the facility is subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions. We cannot assure you that we will be able to borrow funds under the facility at any particular time or at all.

We will be subject to corporate-level income tax if we fail to qualify as a RIC.

We intend to maintain our qualification as a RIC under the Code. As a RIC, we do not pay federal income taxes on our income (including realized gains) that is distributed to our stockholders, provided that we satisfy certain source of income, distribution and asset diversification requirements.

The source of income requirement is satisfied if we derive at least 90.0% of our annual gross income from interest, dividends, payments with respect to certain securities loans, gains from the sale or other disposition of securities or options thereon or foreign currencies, or other income derived with respect to our business of investing in such securities or currencies, and net income from interests in “qualified publicly traded partnerships,” as defined in the Code.

The annual distribution requirement is satisfied if we distribute to our stockholders on an annual basis an amount equal to at least 90.0% of our ordinary net taxable income and realized net short-term capital gains in excess of realized net long-term capital losses, if any, reduced by deductible expenses. We are subject to certain asset coverage ratio requirements under the 1940 Act and covenants under our borrowing agreements that could, under certain circumstances, restrict us from making distributions necessary to qualify as a RIC. In such case, if we are unable to obtain cash from other sources, we may fail to qualify as a RIC and, thus, may be subject to corporate-level income tax.

The diversification requirements will be satisfied if we diversify our holdings so that at the end of each quarter of the taxable year: (i) at least 50.0% of the value of our assets consists of cash, cash equivalents, U.S. government securities, securities of other regulated investment companies, and other securities if such other securities of any one issuer do not represent more than 5.0% of the value of our assets or more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of the issuer; and (ii) no more than 25.0% of the value of our assets is invested in the securities, other than U.S. government securities or securities of other regulated investment companies, of one issuer or of two or more issuers that are controlled, as determined under applicable tax rules, by us and that are engaged in the same or similar or related trades or businesses or in certain publicly traded partnerships.

Failure to meet these tests may result in our having to (i) dispose of certain investments quickly or (ii) raise additional capital to prevent the loss of our RIC qualification. Because most of our investments will be in private companies, any such dispositions could be made at disadvantageous prices and may result in substantial losses. If we raise additional capital to satisfy the asset diversification requirements, it could take us time to invest such capital. During this period, we will invest the additional capital in temporary investments, such as cash and cash equivalents, which we expect will earn yields substantially lower than the interest income that we anticipate receiving in respect of investments in leveraged loans and mezzanine debt.

If we fail to qualify as a RIC for any reason, all of our taxable income will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at regular corporate rates. The resulting corporate taxes could substantially reduce our net assets, the amount of income available for distribution to our common stockholders or payment of our outstanding indebtedness including the 2023 Notes. Such a failure would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

 

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Because we intend to distribute between 90% and 100% of our income to our stockholders in connection with our election to be treated as a RIC, we will continue to need additional capital to finance our growth. If additional funds are unavailable or not available on favorable terms, our ability to grow will be impaired.

In order to qualify for the tax benefits available to RICs and to minimize corporate-level taxes, we intend to distribute to our stockholders between 90% and 100% of our annual taxable income, except that we may retain certain net capital gains for investment, and treat such amounts as deemed distributions to our stockholders. If we elect to treat any amounts as deemed distributions, we must pay income taxes at the corporate rate on such deemed distributions on behalf of our stockholders. As a result of these requirements, we will likely need to raise capital from other sources to grow our business. As a BDC, we generally are required to meet a coverage ratio of total assets, less liabilities and indebtedness not represented by senior securities, to total senior securities, which includes all of our borrowings and any outstanding preferred stock, of at least 200%. These requirements limit the amount that we may borrow. Because we will continue to need capital to grow our investment portfolio, these limitations may prevent us from incurring debt and require us to raise additional equity at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so.

While we expect to be able to borrow and to issue additional debt and equity securities, we cannot assure you that debt and equity financing will be available to us on favorable terms, or at all. Also, as a BDC, we generally are not permitted to issue equity securities priced below net asset value without stockholder approval. If additional funds are not available to us, we could be forced to curtail or cease new investment activities, and our net asset value and share price could decline.

We may have difficulty paying our required distributions if we recognize income before or without receiving cash in respect of such income.

For federal income tax purposes, we may be required to recognize taxable income in circumstances in which we do not receive a corresponding payment in cash. For example, we may on occasion hold debt obligations that are treated under applicable tax rules as having original issue discount (such as debt instruments with payment-in-kind interest (“PIK”) or, in certain cases, increasing interest rates or issued with warrants) and we must include in income each year a portion of the original issue discount that accrues over the life of the obligation, regardless of whether cash representing such income is received by us in the same taxable year. We may also have to include in income other amounts that we have not yet received in cash, such as deferred loan origination fees that are paid after origination of the loan or are paid in non-cash compensation such as warrants or stock. In addition, we may be required to accrue for federal income tax purposes amounts attributable to our investment in Saratoga CLO, a collateralized loan obligation fund, that may differ from the distributions paid in respect of our investment in the subordinated notes of such collateralized loan obligation fund because of the factors set forth above or because distributions on the subordinated notes are contractually required to be diverted for reinvestment or to pay down outstanding indebtedness.

Because any original issue discount or other amounts accrued will be included in our investment company taxable income for the year of accrual, we may be required to make a distribution to our stockholders in order to satisfy the annual distribution requirement, even though we will not have received any corresponding cash amount. As a result, we may have difficulty meeting the annual distribution requirement necessary to obtain and maintain RIC tax treatment under the Code. We may have to sell some of our investments at times and/or at prices we would not consider advantageous, raise additional debt or equity capital or forgo new investment opportunities for this purpose. If we are not able to obtain cash from other sources, we may fail to qualify for RIC tax treatment and thus become subject to corporate-level income tax.

Our ability to enter into transactions with our affiliates is restricted.

Because we have elected to be treated as a BDC, we are prohibited under the 1940 Act from participating in certain transactions with certain of our affiliates without the prior approval of our independent directors and, in

 

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some cases, the SEC. Any person that owns, directly or indirectly, 5.0% or more of our outstanding voting securities is our affiliate for purposes of the 1940 Act and we are generally prohibited from buying or selling any securities (other than our securities) from or to such affiliate, absent the prior approval of our independent directors. The 1940 Act also prohibits certain “joint” transactions with certain of our affiliates, which could include investments in the same portfolio company, without prior approval of our independent directors and, in some cases, the SEC. If a person acquires more than 25.0% of our voting securities, we are prohibited from buying or selling any security (other than any security of which we are the issuer) from or to such person or certain of that person’s affiliates, or entering into prohibited joint transactions with such person, absent the prior approval of the SEC. Similar restrictions limit our ability to transact business with our officers, directors or investment adviser or their affiliates. As a result of these restrictions, we may be prohibited from buying or selling any security (other than any security of which we are the issuer) from or to any portfolio company of a private equity fund managed by our investment adviser without the prior approval of the SEC, which may limit the scope of investment opportunities that would otherwise be available to us.

We operate in a highly competitive market for investment opportunities.

A number of entities compete with us to make the types of investments that we make in private middle market companies. We compete with other BDCs, public and private funds (including SBICs), commercial and investment banks, commercial financing companies, insurance companies, high-yield investors, hedge funds, and, to the extent they provide an alternative form of financing, private equity funds. Many of our competitors are substantially larger and have considerably greater financial, technical and marketing resources than us. Some competitors may have a lower cost of funds and access to funding sources that are not available to us. In addition, some of our competitors may have higher risk tolerances or different risk assessments that could allow them to consider a wider variety of investments and establish more relationships than us. Furthermore, many of our competitors are not subject to the regulatory restrictions that the 1940 Act imposes on us as a BDC. As a result of this competition, we may not be able to take advantage of attractive investment opportunities from time to time, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to identify and make investments that meet our investment objective.

We do not seek to compete primarily based on the interest rates we offer and we believe that some of our competitors may make loans with interest rates that are comparable to or lower than the rates we offer.

We may lose investment opportunities if we do not match our competitors’ pricing, terms and structure. If we match our competitors’ pricing, terms and structure, we may experience decreased net interest income and increased risk of credit loss. As a result of operating in such a competitive environment, we may make investments that are on better terms to our portfolio companies than we originally anticipated, which may impact our return on these investments.

Economic recessions or downturns could impair the ability of our portfolio companies to repay loans and harm our operating results.

Many of our portfolio companies may be susceptible to economic slowdowns or recessions and may be unable to repay our debt investments during these periods. Therefore, our non-performing assets are likely to increase and the value of our portfolio is likely to decrease during these periods. Adverse economic conditions also may decrease the value of collateral securing some of our debt investments and the value of our equity investments. Economic slowdowns or recessions could lead to financial losses in our portfolio and a decrease in revenues, net income and assets. Unfavorable economic conditions also could increase our funding costs, limit our access to the capital markets or result in a decision by lenders not to extend credit to us. These events could prevent us from adding to our investment portfolio, cause us to receive a reduced level of interest income from our portfolio companies and/or reduce the fair market value of our investments. Any of the foregoing events could adversely affect our distributable income and have a material adverse effect on our operating results.

 

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We are a non-diversified investment company within the meaning of the 1940 Act, and therefore we are not limited with respect to the proportion of our assets that may be invested in securities of a single issuer.

We are classified as a non-diversified investment company within the meaning of the 1940 Act, which means that we are not limited by the 1940 Act with respect to the proportion of our assets that we may invest in securities of a single issuer. Although we seek to maintain a diversified portfolio in accordance with our business strategies, to the extent that we assume large positions in the securities of a small number of issuers, our net asset value may fluctuate to a greater extent than that of a diversified investment company as a result of changes in the financial condition or the market’s assessment of the issuer. We may also be more susceptible to any single economic or regulatory occurrence than a diversified investment company. Beyond our RIC asset diversification requirements, we do not have fixed guidelines for diversification, and our investments could be concentrated in relatively few portfolio companies.

Our financial condition and results of operations depend on our ability to manage future investments effectively.

Our ability to achieve our investment objective depends on our ability to acquire suitable investments and monitor and administer those investments, which depends, in turn, on Saratoga Investment Advisors’ ability to identify, invest in and monitor companies that meet our investment criteria.

Accomplishing this result on a cost-effective basis is largely a function of Saratoga Investment Advisors’ structuring of the investment process and its ability to provide competent, attentive and efficient service to us. Our executive officers and the officers and employees of Saratoga Investment Advisors have substantial responsibilities in connection with their roles at Saratoga Partners as well as responsibilities under the Management Agreement. They may also be called upon to provide managerial assistance to our portfolio companies. These demands on their time, which will increase as the number of investments grow, may distract them or slow the rate of investment. In order to grow, Saratoga Investment Advisors may need to hire, train, supervise and manage new employees. However, we cannot assure you that any such employees will contribute to the work of Saratoga Investment Advisors. Any failure to manage our future growth effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

We may experience fluctuations in our quarterly and annual results.

We could experience fluctuations in our quarterly operating results due to a number of factors, including the interest rate payable on the debt investments we make, the default rate on such investments, the level of our expenses, variations in and the timing of the recognition of realized and unrealized gains or losses changes in our portfolio composition, the degree to which we encounter competition in our markets and general economic conditions. As a result of these factors, results for any period should not be relied upon as being indicative of performance in future periods. In addition, any of these factors could negatively impact our ability to achieve our investment objectives, which may cause the net asset value of our common stock to decline.

Substantially all of our portfolio investments are recorded at fair value as approved in good faith by our board of directors; such valuations are inherently uncertain and may be materially higher or lower than the values that we ultimately realize upon the disposal of such investments.

Substantially all of our portfolio is, and we expect will continue to be, comprised of investments that are not publicly traded. The value of investments that are not publicly traded may not be readily determinable. We value these investments quarterly at fair value as approved in good faith by our board of directors. Where appropriate, Saratoga Investment Advisors may utilize the services of an independent valuation firm to aid it in determining fair value. The types of factors that may be considered in valuing our investments include the nature and realizable value of any collateral, the portfolio company’s ability to make payments and its earnings, the markets in which the portfolio company does business, market yield trend analysis, comparison to publicly traded

 

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companies, discounted cash flow and other relevant factors. Because such valuations, and particularly valuations of private investments and private companies, are inherently uncertain, may fluctuate over short periods of time and may be based on estimates, our determinations of fair value may differ materially from the values that would have been used if a ready market for these investments existed. Our net asset value could be materially affected if the determinations regarding the fair value of our investments were materially higher or lower than the values that we ultimately realize upon the disposal of such investments.

If we make unsecured debt investments, we may lack adequate protection in the event our portfolio companies become distressed or insolvent and will likely experience a lower recovery than more senior debtholders in the event our portfolio companies default on their indebtedness.

We make unsecured debt investments in portfolio companies. Unsecured debt investments are unsecured and junior to other indebtedness of the portfolio company. As a consequence, the holder of an unsecured debt investment may lack adequate protection in the event the portfolio company becomes distressed or insolvent and will likely experience a lower recovery than more senior debtholders in the event the portfolio company defaults on its indebtedness. In addition, unsecured debt investments of middle-market companies are often highly illiquid and in adverse market conditions may experience steep declines in valuation even if they are fully performing.

If we invest in the securities and other obligations of distressed or bankrupt companies, such investments may be subject to significant risks, including lack of income, extraordinary expenses, uncertainty with respect to satisfaction of debt, lower-than expected investment values or income potentials and resale restrictions.

We are authorized to invest in the securities and other obligations of distressed or bankrupt companies. At times, distressed debt obligations may not produce income and may require us to bear certain extraordinary expenses (including legal, accounting, valuation and transaction expenses) in order to protect and recover our investment. Therefore, to the extent we invest in distressed debt, our ability to achieve current income may be diminished which may affect our ability to make distributions on our common stock or make interest and principal payments of the 2023 Notes.

We also will be subject to significant uncertainty as to when and in what manner and for what value the distressed debt we invest in will eventually be satisfied (e.g., through a liquidation of the obligor’s assets, an exchange offer or plan of reorganization involving the distressed debt securities or a payment of some amount in satisfaction of the obligation). In addition, even if an exchange offer is made or plan of reorganization is adopted with respect to distressed debt held by us, there can be no assurance that the securities or other assets received by us in connection with such exchange offer or plan of reorganization will not have a lower value or income potential than may have been anticipated when the investment was made.

Moreover, any securities received by us upon completion of an exchange offer or plan of reorganization may be restricted as to resale. As a result of our participation in negotiations with respect to any exchange offer or plan of reorganization with respect to an issuer of distressed debt, we may be restricted from disposing of such securities if we are in possession of material non-public information relating to the issuer.

Second priority liens on collateral securing loans that we make to our portfolio companies may be subject to control by senior creditors with first priority liens. If there is a default, the value of the collateral may not be sufficient to repay in full both the first priority creditors and us.

Certain loans that we make to portfolio companies will be secured on a second priority basis by the same collateral securing senior secured debt of such companies. The first priority liens on the collateral will secure the portfolio company’s obligations under any outstanding senior debt and may secure certain other future debt that may be permitted to be incurred by the company under the agreements governing the loans. The holders of obligations secured by the first priority liens on the collateral will generally control the liquidation of and be entitled to receive proceeds from any realization of the collateral to repay their obligations in full before us. In

 

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addition, the value of the collateral in the event of liquidation will depend on market and economic conditions, the availability of buyers and other factors. There can be no assurance that the proceeds, if any, from the sale or sales of all of the collateral would be sufficient to satisfy the loan obligations secured by the second priority liens after payment in full of all obligations secured by the first priority liens on the collateral. If such proceeds are not sufficient to repay amounts outstanding under the loan obligations secured by the second priority liens, then we, to the extent not repaid from the proceeds of the sale of the collateral, will only have an unsecured claim against the company’s remaining assets, if any.

The rights we may have with respect to the collateral securing the loans we make to our portfolio companies with senior debt outstanding may also be limited pursuant to the terms of one or more intercreditor agreements that we enter into with the holders of senior debt. Under such an intercreditor agreement, at any time that obligations that have the benefit of the first priority liens are outstanding, any of the following actions that may be taken with respect to the collateral will be at the direction of the holders of the obligations secured by the first priority liens: the ability to cause the commencement of enforcement proceedings against the collateral; the ability to control the conduct of such proceedings; the approval of amendments to collateral documents; releases of liens on the collateral; and waivers of past defaults under collateral documents. We may not have the ability to control or direct such actions, even if our rights are adversely affected.

The lack of liquidity in our investments may adversely affect our business.

We primarily make investments in private companies. A portion of these securities may be subject to legal and other restrictions on resale, transfer, pledge or other disposition or will otherwise be less liquid than publicly traded securities. The illiquidity of our investments may make it difficult for us to sell such investments if the need arises. In addition, if we are required to liquidate all or a portion of our portfolio quickly, we may realize significantly less than the value at which we have previously recorded our investments. In addition, we may face other restrictions on our ability to liquidate an investment in a business entity to the extent that we or our investment adviser has or could be deemed to have material non-public information regarding such business entity.

The debt securities in which we invest are subject to credit risk and prepayment risk.

An issuer of a debt security may be unable to make interest payments and repay principal. We could lose money if the issuer of a debt obligation is, or is perceived to be, unable or unwilling to make timely principal and/or interest payments, or to otherwise honor its obligations. The downgrade of a security by rating agencies may further decrease its value.

Certain debt instruments may contain call or redemption provisions which would allow the issuer thereof to prepay principal prior to the debt instrument’s stated maturity. This is known as prepayment risk. Prepayment risk is greater during a falling interest rate environment as issuers can reduce their cost of capital by refinancing higher interest debt instruments with lower interest debt instruments. An issuer may also elect to refinance their debt instruments with lower interest debt instruments if the credit standing of the issuer improves. To the extent debt securities in our portfolio are called or redeemed, we may receive less than we paid for such security and we may be forced to reinvest in lower yielding securities or debt securities of issuers of lower credit quality.

Our investment in Saratoga CLO constitutes a leveraged investment in a portfolio of predominantly senior secured first lien term loans and is subject to additional risks and volatility.

At November 30, 2016, our investment in the subordinated notes of Saratoga CLO, a collateralized loan obligation fund, had a fair value of $11.0 million and constituted 4.0% of our portfolio. This investment constitutes a first loss position in a portfolio that, as of November 30, 2016, was composed of $297.5 million in aggregate principal amount of primarily senior secured first lien term loans and $16.0 million in uninvested cash. A first loss position means that we will suffer the first economic losses if the value of Saratoga CLO decreases. First loss positions typically carry a higher risk and earn a higher yield. Interest payments generated from this

 

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portfolio will be used to pay the administrative expenses of Saratoga CLO and interest on the debt issued by Saratoga CLO before paying a return on the subordinated notes. Principal payments will be similarly applied to pay administrative expenses of Saratoga CLO and for reinvestment or repayment of Saratoga CLO debt before paying a return on, or repayment of, the subordinated notes. In addition, 80.0% of our fixed management fee and 100.0% our incentive management fee for acting as the collateral manager of Saratoga CLO is subordinated to the payment of interest and principal on Saratoga CLO debt. Any losses on the portfolio will accordingly reduce the cash flow available to pay these management fees and provide a return on, or repayment of, our investment. Depending on the amount and timing of such losses, we may experience smaller than expected returns and, potentially, the loss of our entire investment.

As the manager of the portfolio of Saratoga CLO we will have some ability to direct the composition of the portfolio, but our discretion is limited by the terms of the debt issued by Saratoga CLO which may limit our ability to make investments that we feel are in the best interests of the subordinated notes, and the availability of suitable investments. The performance of Saratoga CLO’s portfolio is also subject to many of the same risks sets forth in this prospectus with respect to portfolio investments in leveraged loans.

In the event that a bankruptcy court orders the substantive consolidation of us with Saratoga CLO, the creditors of Saratoga CLO, including the holders of $282.4 million aggregate principal amount of debt, as of November 30, 2016 issued by Saratoga CLO, would have claims against the consolidated bankruptcy estate, which would include our assets.

We believe that we have observed and will observe certain formalities and operating procedures that are generally recognized requirements for maintaining our separate existence and that our assets and liabilities can be readily identified as distinct from those of Saratoga CLO. However, we cannot assure you that a bankruptcy court would agree in the event that we or Saratoga CLO became a debtor in connection with a bankruptcy proceeding. If a bankruptcy court concludes that substantive consolidation of us with Saratoga CLO is warranted, the creditors of Saratoga CLO, including the holders of $282.4 million aggregate principal amount of debt, as of November 30, 2016 issued by Saratoga CLO, would have claims against the consolidated bankruptcy estate. Substantive consolidation means that our assets are placed in a single bankruptcy estate with those of Saratoga CLO, rather than kept separate, and that the creditors of Saratoga CLO have a claim against that single estate (including our assets), as opposed to retaining their claims against only Saratoga CLO.

Our investments in Saratoga CLO are typically broadly syndicated loans that have a different risk profile than would direct investments made by us, including less information available and fewer rights regarding repayment compared to companies we invest in directly as well as complicated accounting and tax implications.

Due to our investments in the Saratoga CLO being primarily broadly syndicated loans, there may be less information available to us on those companies as compared to most investments that we make directly. For example, we will typically have fewer rights relating to how such companies manage their cash flow to repay debt, the inclusion of protective covenants, default penalties, lien protection, change of control provisions and board observation rights in deal terms, and our general ability to oversee the company’s operations. Our investment in Saratoga CLO is also subject to the risk of leverage associated with the debt issued by Saratoga CLO and the repayment priority of senior debt holders in Saratoga CLO.

The accounting and tax implications of such investments are complicated. In particular, reported earnings from the equity tranche investment of Saratoga CLO are recorded under GAAP based upon an effective yield calculation. Current taxable earnings on these investments, however, will generally not be determinable until after the end of the fiscal year of Saratoga CLO that ends within the Company’s fiscal year, even though the investment is generating cash flow. In general, the tax treatment of investment in Saratoga CLO may result in higher distributable earnings in the early years and a capital loss at maturity, while for reporting purposes the totality of cash flows are reflected in a constant yield to maturity.

 

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The senior loan portfolio of Saratoga CLO is concentrated in a limited number of industries or borrowers, which may subject Saratoga CLO, and in turn us, to a risk of significant loss if there is a downturn in a particular industry in which Saratoga CLO is concentrated.

Saratoga CLO has senior loan portfolios that are concentrated in a limited number of industries or borrowers. A downturn in any particular industry or borrower in which Saratoga CLO is heavily invested may subject Saratoga CLO, and in turn us, to a risk of significant loss and could significantly impact the aggregate returns we realize. If an industry in which Saratoga CLO is heavily invested suffers from adverse business or economic conditions, a material portion of our investment in Saratoga CLO could be affected adversely, which, in turn, could adversely affect our financial position and results of operations. For example, as of November 30, 2016, Saratoga CLO’s investments in the business services industry represented approximately 14.2% of the fair value of Saratoga CLO’s portfolio. Companies in the business services industry are subject to general economic downturns and business cycles, and will often suffer reduced revenues and rate pressures during periods of economic uncertainty. In addition, investments in the healthcare & pharmaceuticals industry represented approximately 10.6% of the fair value of Saratoga CLO’s portfolio. Changes in healthcare or other laws and regulations applicable to the businesses of some of the companies in which Saratoga CLO invests may occur that could increase their compliance and other costs of doing business, require significant systems enhancements, or render their products or services less profitable or obsolete, any of which could have a material adverse effect on their results of operations. There has also been an increased political and regulatory focus on healthcare laws in recent years, and new legislation could have a material effect on the business and operations of companies in which Saratoga CLO invests.

The application of the risk retention rules to CLOs may have broader effects on the CLO and loan markets in general, potentially resulting in fewer or less desirable investment opportunities for Saratoga CLO.

Section 941 of the Dodd-Frank Act added a provision to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, requiring the seller, sponsor or securitizer of a securitization vehicle to retain no less than five percent of the credit risk in assets it sells into a securitization and prohibits such securitizer from directly or indirectly hedging or otherwise transferring the retained credit risk. The responsible federal agencies adopted final rules implementing these restrictions on October 22, 2014. These rules will become effective with respect to CLOs two years after publication in the Federal Register. Under the final rules, the asset manager of a CLO would be considered the sponsor of a securitization vehicle and would be required to retain five percent of the credit risk in the CLO, which may be retained horizontally in the equity tranche of the CLO or vertically as a five percent interest in each tranche of the securities issued by the CLO. Although the final rules contain an exemption from such requirements for the asset manager of a CLO if, among other things, the originator or lead arranger of all of the loans acquired by the CLO retain such risk at the asset level and, at origination of such asset, takes a loan tranche of at least 20% of the aggregate principal balance, it is possible that the originators and lead arrangers of loans in this market will not agree to assume this risk or provide such retention at origination of the asset in a manner that would provide meaningful relief from the risk retention requirements for CLO managers.

We believe that the U.S. risk retention requirements imposed for CLO managers under Section 941 of the Dodd-Frank Act has created some uncertainty in the market in regard to future CLO issuance. Given that certain CLO managers may require capital provider partners to satisfy this requirement beginning on December 24, 2016, we believe that this may create additional opportunities (and additional risks) for us in the future.

Failure by Saratoga CLO to satisfy certain financial covenants may entitle senior debtholders to additional payments, which may harm our operating results by reducing payments we would otherwise be entitled to receive from Saratoga CLO.

The failure by Saratoga CLO to satisfy certain financial covenants, specifically those with respect to adequate collateralization and/or interest coverage tests, could lead to a reduction in its payments to us. In the event that Saratoga CLO failed these certain tests, senior debt holders may be entitled to additional payments that

 

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would, in turn, reduce the payments we would otherwise be entitled to receive. Separately, we may incur expenses to the extent necessary to seek recovery upon default or to negotiate new terms, which may include the waiver of certain financial covenants, with Saratoga CLO or any other investment we may make. If any of these occur, it could materially and adversely affect our operating results and cash flows.

Available information about privately held companies is limited.

We invest primarily in privately-held companies. Generally, little public information exists about these companies, and we are required to rely on the ability of our investment adviser’s investment professionals to obtain adequate information to evaluate the potential returns from investing in these companies. These companies and their financial information are not subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and other rules that govern public companies. If we are unable to uncover all material information about these companies, we may not make a fully informed investment decision, and we may lose money on our investments.

When we are a debt or minority equity investor in a portfolio company, we may not be in a position to control the entity, and its management may make decisions that could decrease the value of our investment.

We make both debt and minority equity investments; therefore, we are subject to the risk that a portfolio company may make business decisions with which we disagree, and the stockholders and management of such company may take risks or otherwise act in ways that do not serve our interests. As a result, a portfolio company may make decisions that could decrease the value of our portfolio holdings.

Our portfolio companies may incur debt or issue equity securities that rank equally with, or senior to, our investments in such companies.

Our portfolio companies usually will have, or may be permitted to incur, other debt, or issue other equity securities that rank equally with, or senior to, our investments. By their terms, such instruments may provide that the holders are entitled to receive payment of dividends, interest or principal on or before the dates on which we are entitled to receive payments in respect of our investments. These debt instruments will usually prohibit the portfolio companies from paying interest on or repaying our investments in the event and during the continuance of a default under such debt. Also, in the event of insolvency, liquidation, dissolution, reorganization or bankruptcy of a portfolio company, holders of securities ranking senior to our investment in that portfolio company would typically be entitled to receive payment in full before we receive any distribution in respect of our investment. After repaying such holders, the portfolio company may not have any remaining assets to use for repaying its obligation to us. In the case of debtor ranking equally with our investments, we would have to share on an equal basis any distributions with other holders in the event of an insolvency, liquidation, dissolution, reorganization or bankruptcy of the relevant portfolio company.

There may be circumstances where our debt investments could be subordinated to claims of other creditors or we could be subject to lender liability claims.

If one of our portfolio companies were to go bankrupt, even though we may have structured our interest as senior debt, depending on the facts and circumstances, including the extent to which we actually provided managerial assistance to that portfolio company, a bankruptcy court might re-characterize our debt holding and subordinate all or a portion of our claim to that of other creditors. In addition, lenders can be subject to lender liability claims for actions taken by them where they become too involved in the borrower’s business or exercise control over the borrower. It is possible that we could become subject to a lender’s liability claim, including as a result of actions taken if we actually render significant managerial assistance.

Investments in equity securities involve a substantial degree of risk.

We purchase common stock and other equity securities. Although equity securities have historically generated higher average total returns than fixed-income securities over the long-term, equity securities also have experienced significantly more volatility in those returns and in recent years have significantly underperformed

 

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relative to fixed-income securities. The equity securities we acquire may fail to appreciate and may decline in value or become worthless and our ability to recover our investment will depend on our portfolio company’s success. Investments in equity securities involve a number of significant risks, including:

 

    any equity investment we make in a portfolio company could be subject to further dilution as a result of the issuance of additional equity interests and to serious risks as a junior security that will be subordinate to all indebtedness or senior securities in the event that the issuer is unable to meet its obligations or becomes subject to a bankruptcy process;

 

    to the extent that the portfolio company requires additional capital and is unable to obtain it, we may not recover our investment in equity securities; and

 

    in some cases, equity securities in which we invest will not pay current dividends, and our ability to realize a return on our investment, as well as to recover our investment, will be dependent on the success of our portfolio companies. Even if the portfolio companies are successful, our ability to realize the value of our investment may be dependent on the occurrence of a liquidity event, such as a public offering or the sale of the portfolio company. It is likely to take a significant amount of time before a liquidity event occurs or we can sell our equity investments. In addition, the equity securities we receive or invest in may be subject to restrictions on resale during periods in which it could be advantageous to sell.

There are special risks associated with investing in preferred securities, including:

 

    preferred securities may include provisions that permit the issuer, at its discretion, to defer distributions for a stated period without any adverse consequences to the issuer. If we own a preferred security that is deferring its distributions, we may be required to report income for tax purposes even though we have not received any cash payments in respect of such income;

 

    preferred securities are subordinated with respect to corporate income and liquidation payments, and are therefore subject to greater risk than debt;

 

    preferred securities may be substantially less liquid than many other securities, such as common securities or U.S. government securities; and

 

    preferred security holders generally have no voting rights with respect to the issuing company, subject to limited exceptions.

Our investments in foreign debt, including that of emerging market issuers, may involve significant risks in addition to the risks inherent in U.S. investments.

Although there are limitations on our ability to invest in foreign debt, we may, from time to time, invest in debt of foreign companies, including the debt of emerging market issuers. Investing in foreign companies may expose us to additional risks not typically associated with investing in U.S. companies. These risks include changes in exchange control regulations, political and social instability, expropriation, imposition of foreign taxes, less liquid markets and less available information than is generally the case in the United States, higher transaction costs, less government supervision of exchanges, brokers and issuers, less developed bankruptcy laws, difficulty in enforcing contractual obligations, lack of uniform accounting and auditing standards and greater price volatility. Investments in the debt of emerging market issuers may subject us to additional risks such as inflation, wage and price controls, and the imposition of trade barriers. Furthermore, economic conditions in emerging market countries are, to some extent, influenced by economic and securities market conditions in other emerging market countries. Although economic conditions are different in each country, investors’ reaction to developments in one country can have effects on the debt of issuers in other countries.

Although most of our investments will be U.S. dollar-denominated, our investments that are denominated in a foreign currency will be subject to the risk that the value of a particular currency will change in relation to one or more other currencies. Among the factors that may affect currency values are trade balances, the level of short-term interest rates, differences in relative values of similar assets in different currencies, long-term

 

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opportunities for investment and capital appreciation, and political developments. We may employ hedging techniques to minimize these risks, but we cannot assure you that we will fully hedge against these risks or that such strategies will be effective. As a result, a change in currency exchange rates may adversely affect our profitability.

We may expose ourselves to risks if we engage in hedging transactions.

We may utilize instruments such as forward contracts, currency options and interest rate swaps, caps, collars and floors to seek to hedge against fluctuations in the relative values of our portfolio positions from changes in currency exchange rates and market interest rates. Use of these hedging instruments may expose us to counter-party credit risk. Hedging against a decline in the values of our portfolio positions does not eliminate the possibility of fluctuations in the values of such positions or prevent losses if the values of such positions decline. However, such hedging can establish other positions designed to gain from those same developments, thereby offsetting the decline in the value of such portfolio positions. Such hedging transactions may also limit the opportunity for gain if the values of the portfolio positions should increase. Moreover, it may not be possible to hedge against an exchange rate or interest rate fluctuation that is generally anticipated at an acceptable price.

The success of our hedging transactions will depend on our ability to correctly predict movements in currencies and interest rates. Therefore, while we may enter into such transactions to seek to reduce currency exchange rate and interest rate risks, unanticipated changes in currency exchange rates or interest rates may result in poorer overall investment performance than if we had not engaged in any such hedging transactions. In addition, the degree of correlation between price movements of the instruments used in a hedging strategy and price movements in the portfolio positions being hedged may vary. Moreover, for a variety of reasons, we may not seek to establish a perfect correlation between such hedging instruments and the portfolio holdings being hedged. Any such imperfect correlation may prevent us from achieving the intended hedge and expose us to risk of loss. In addition, it may not be possible to hedge fully or perfectly against currency fluctuations affecting the value of securities denominated in non-U.S. currencies because the value of those securities is likely to fluctuate as a result of factors not entirely related to currency fluctuations. To the extent we engage in hedging transactions, we also face the risk that counterparties to the derivative instruments we hold may default, which may expose us to unexpected losses from positions where we believed that our risk had been appropriately hedged.

Our board of directors may change our investment objective, operating policies and strategies without prior notice or stockholder approval, the effects of which may be adverse.

Our board of directors has the authority to modify or waive our current investment objective, operating policies and strategies without prior notice and without stockholder approval. We cannot predict the effect any changes to our current operating policies and strategies would have on our business, financial condition, and value of our common stock. However, the effects might be adverse, which could negatively impact our ability to pay dividends and cause you to lose all or part of your investment.

We have limited experience in managing an SBIC and any failure to comply with SBA regulations, resulting from our lack of experience or otherwise, could have an adverse effect on our operations.

On March 28, 2012, our wholly-owned subsidiary, Saratoga Investment Corp. SBIC, LP, received a license from the SBA to operate as an SBIC under Section 301(c) of the Small Business Investment Act of 1958 and is regulated by the SBA.

The SBA places certain limitations on the financing terms of investments by SBICs in portfolio companies and prohibits SBICs from providing funds for certain purposes or to businesses in a few prohibited industries. Compliance with SBIC requirements may cause our SBIC subsidiary to forego attractive investment opportunities that are not permitted under SBA regulations.

Further, SBA regulations require that an SBIC be periodically examined and audited by the SBA to determine its compliance with the relevant SBA regulations. The SBA prohibits, without prior SBA approval, a

 

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“change of control” of an SBIC or transfers that would result in any person (or a group of persons acting in concert) owning 10% or more of a class of capital stock of an SBIC. If our SBIC subsidiary fails to comply with applicable SBA regulations, the SBA could, depending on the severity of the violation, limit or prohibit its use of debentures, declare outstanding debentures immediately due and payable, and/or limit it from making new investments. In addition, the SBA can revoke or suspend a license for willful or repeated violation of, or willful or repeated failure to observe, any provision of the Small Business Investment Act of 1958 or any rule or regulation promulgated thereunder. These actions by the SBA would, in turn, negatively affect us because our SBIC subsidiary is our wholly-owned subsidiary. We do not have any prior experience managing an SBIC. Our lack of experience in complying with SBA regulations may hinder our ability to take advantage of our SBIC subsidiary’s access to SBA-guaranteed debentures.

Any failure to comply with SBA regulations could have an adverse effect on our operations.

Our investments may be risky, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

Substantially all of our debt investments hold a non-investment grade rating by one or more rating agencies (which non-investment grade debt is commonly referred to as “high yield” and “junk” debt) or, where not rated by any rating agency, would be below investment grade or “junk”, if rated. A below investment grade or “junk” rating means that, in the rating agency’s view, there is an increased risk that the obligor on such debt will be unable to pay interest and repay principal on its debt in full. We also invest in debt that defers or pays PIK interest. To the extent interest payments associated with such debt are deferred, such debt will be subject to greater fluctuations in value based on changes in interest rates, such debt could produce taxable income without a corresponding cash payment to us, and since we generally do not receive any cash prior to maturity of the debt, the investment will be of greater risk.

In addition, private middle market companies in which we invest are exposed to a number of significant risks, including:

 

    limited financial resources and an inability to meet their obligations, which may be accompanied by a deterioration in the value of any collateral and a reduction in the likelihood of us realizing any guarantees we may have obtained in connection with our investment;

 

    shorter operating histories, narrower product lines and smaller market shares than larger businesses, which tend to render them more vulnerable to competitors’ actions and market conditions, as well as general economic downturns;

 

    dependence on the management talents and efforts of a small group of persons; the death, disability, resignation or termination of one or more of which could have a material adverse impact on the company and, in turn, on us;

 

    less predictable operating results and, possibly, substantial additional capital requirements to support their operations, finance expansion or maintain their competitive position; and

 

    difficulty accessing the capital markets to meet future capital needs.

In addition, our executive officers, directors and our investment adviser may, in the ordinary course of business, be named as defendants in litigation arising from our investments in the portfolio companies.

Our independent auditors have not assessed our internal control over financial reporting. If our internal control over financial reporting is not effective, it could have a material adverse effect on our stock price and our ability to raise capital.

Because we are a “non-accelerated filer” within the meaning of Rule 12b-2 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, our independent auditors are not required to assess our internal control over financial reporting or to provide a report thereon. Although our management determined that our internal control over financial reporting was effective at August 31, 2016 (the last date that such determination was required to be made by us), there can be no assurance that our independent auditors would agree with our management’s conclusion. Furthermore, if our

 

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market capitalization, excluding affiliated stockholders, at August 31 of any fiscal year is greater than $75 million, then we will be required to obtain independent auditor certification on the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting for that fiscal year. If our internal control over financial reporting is determined in the future to not be effective, whether by our management or by our independent auditors, there could be an adverse reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of confidence in the reliability of our consolidated financial statements, which could materially adversely affect our stock price and our ability to raise capital necessary to operate our business. In addition, we may be required to incur costs in improving our internal control system and hiring additional personnel.

Our portfolio may continue to be concentrated in a limited number of industries, which may subject us to a risk of significant loss if there is a downturn in a particular industry in which a number of our investments are concentrated.

Our portfolio may continue to be concentrated in a limited number of industries. A downturn in any particular industry in which we are invested could significantly impact the aggregate returns we realize.

As of November 30, 2016, our investments in the business services industry represented approximately 52.7% of the fair value of our portfolio and our investments in the healthcare industry represented approximately 10.1% of the fair value of our portfolio. In addition, we may from time to time invest a relatively significant percentage of our portfolio in industries we do not necessarily target. If an industry in which we have significant investments suffers from adverse business or economic conditions, as these industries have to varying degrees, a material portion of our investment portfolio could be affected adversely, which, in turn, could adversely affect our financial position and results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

Investing in our common stock may involve an above average degree of risk.

The investments we make in accordance with our investment objective may result in a higher amount of risk than alternative investment options and volatility or loss of principal. Our investments in portfolio companies may be highly speculative and aggressive, and therefore, an investment in our common stock may not be suitable for someone with lower risk tolerance.

We may continue to choose to pay dividends in our own stock, in which case you may be required to pay tax in excess of the cash you receive.

We have in the past, and may continue to, distribute taxable dividends that are payable to our stockholders in part through the issuance of shares of our common stock. For example, on October 30, 2013, our board of directors declared a dividend of $2.65 per share to shareholders payable in cash or shares of our common stock. Under certain applicable provisions of the Code and the Treasury regulations, distributions payable in cash or in shares of stock at the election of stockholders are treated as taxable dividends. The Internal Revenue Service has issued private rulings indicating that this rule will apply even where the total amount of cash that may be distributed is limited to no more than 20.0% of the total distribution. Under these rulings, if too many stockholders elect to receive their distributions in cash, each such stockholder would receive a pro rata share of the total cash to be distributed and would receive the remainder of their distribution in shares of stock. If we decide to make any distributions consistent with these rulings that are payable in part in our stock, taxable stockholders receiving such dividends will be required to include the full amount of the dividend (whether received in cash, our stock, or a combination thereof) as ordinary income (or as long-term capital gain to the extent such distribution is properly reported as a capital gain dividend) to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for United States federal income tax purposes. As a result, a U.S. stockholder may be required to pay tax with respect to such dividends in excess of any cash received. If a U.S. stockholder sells the stock it receives as a dividend in order to pay this tax, the sales proceeds may be less than the amount

 

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included in income with respect to the dividend, depending on the market price of our stock at the time of the sale. Furthermore, with respect to non-U.S. stockholders, we may be required to withhold U.S. tax with respect to such dividends, including in respect of all or a portion of such dividend that is payable in stock. In addition, if a significant number of our stockholders determine to sell shares of our stock in order to pay taxes owed on dividends, it may put downward pressure on the trading price of our stock.

On September 24, 2014, we announced the recommencement of quarterly dividends to our stockholders. We have adopted a dividend reinvestment plan (“DRIP”) that provides for reinvestment of our dividend distributions on behalf of our stockholders unless a stockholder elects to receive cash. As a result, if our board of directors authorizes, and we declare, a cash dividend, then our stockholders who have not “opted out” of the DRIP by the dividend record date will have their cash dividends automatically reinvested into additional shares of our common stock, rather than receiving the cash dividends. We have the option to satisfy the share requirements of the DRIP through the issuance of new shares of common stock or through open market purchases of common stock by the DRIP plan administrator.

The market price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly.

The market price and liquidity of the market for our common stock may be significantly affected by numerous factors, some of which are beyond our control and may not be directly related to our operating performance. These factors include:

 

    significant volatility in the market price and trading volume of securities of BDCs or other companies in our sector, which are not necessarily related to the operating performance of these companies;

 

    changes in regulatory policies, accounting pronouncements or tax rules, particularly with respect to RICs, BDCs or SBICs;

 

    loss of RIC qualification;

 

    changes in the value of our portfolio of investments;

 

    any shortfall in revenue or net income or any increase in losses from levels expected by investors or securities analysts;

 

    departure of any of Saratoga Investment Advisors’ key personnel;

 

    operating performance of companies comparable to us;

 

    general economic trends and other external factors; or

 

    loss of a major funding source.

Our business and operation could be negatively affected if we become subject to any securities litigation or shareholder activism, which could cause us to incur significant expense, hinder execution of investment strategy and impact our stock price.

In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been brought against that company. Shareholder activism, which could take many forms or arise in a variety of situations, has been increasing in the BDC space recently. While we are currently not subject to any securities litigation or shareholder activism, due to the potential volatility of our stock price and for a variety of other reasons, we may in the future become the target of securities litigation or shareholder activism. Securities litigation and shareholder activism, including potential proxy contests, could result in substantial costs and divert management’s and our board of directors’ attention and resources from our business. Additionally, such securities litigation and shareholder activism could give rise to perceived uncertainties as to our future, adversely affect our relationships with service providers and make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified personnel. Also, we may be required to incur significant legal fees and other expenses related to

 

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any securities litigation and activist shareholder matters. Further, our stock price could be subject to significant fluctuation or otherwise be adversely affected by the events, risks and uncertainties of any securities litigation and shareholder activism.

There is a risk that you may not receive distributions or that our distributions may not grow over time.

As a BDC for 1940 Act purposes and a RIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we intend to make distributions out of assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders once such distributions are authorized by our board of directors and declared by us. We cannot assure you that we will achieve investment results that will allow us to make a specified level of cash distributions or periodically increase our dividend rate. In addition, due to the asset coverage test that is applicable to us as a BDC, and provisions contained in the agreements governing our borrowings, we may be limited in our ability to make distributions. Further, if we invest a greater amount of assets in equity securities that do not pay current dividends, it could reduce the amount available for distribution.

Provisions of our governing documents and the Maryland General Corporation Law could deter future takeover attempts and have an adverse impact on the price of our common stock.

We are governed by our charter and bylaws, which we refer to as our “governing documents.”

Our governing documents and the Maryland General Corporation Law contain provisions that may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a future transaction or change in control of us that might involve a premium price for our stockholders or otherwise be in their best interest.

Our charter provides for the classification of our board of directors into three classes of directors, serving staggered three-year terms, which may render a change of control of us or removal of our incumbent management more difficult. Furthermore, any and all vacancies on our board of directors will be filled generally only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors in office, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum, and any director elected to fill a vacancy will serve for the remainder of the full term until a successor is elected and qualifies.

Our board of directors is authorized to create and issue new series of shares, to classify or reclassify any unissued shares of stock into one or more classes or series, including preferred stock and, without stockholder approval, to amend our charter to increase or decrease the number of shares of stock that we have authority to issue, which could have the effect of diluting a stockholder’s ownership interest. Prior to the issuance of shares of stock of each class or series, including any reclassified series, our board of directors is required by our governing documents to set the terms, preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms or conditions of redemption for each class or series of shares of stock.

Our governing documents also provide that our board of directors has the exclusive power to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws, and to make new bylaws. The Maryland General Corporation Law also contains certain provisions that may limit the ability of a third party to acquire control of us, such as:

 

    The Maryland Business Combination Act, which, subject to certain limitations, prohibits certain business combinations between us and an “interested stockholder” (defined generally as any person who beneficially owns 10% or more of the voting power of the common stock or an affiliate thereof) for five years after the most recent date on which the stockholder becomes an interested stockholder and, thereafter, imposes special minimum price provisions and special stockholder voting requirements on these combinations; and

 

   

The Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act, which provides that “control shares” of a Maryland corporation (defined as shares of common stock which, when aggregated with other shares of common

 

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stock controlled by the stockholder, entitles the stockholder to exercise one of three increasing ranges of voting power in electing directors) acquired in a “control share acquisition” (defined as the direct or indirect acquisition of ownership or control of “control shares”) have no voting rights except to the extent approved by stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding all interested shares of common stock.

In addition, the provisions of the Maryland Business Combination Act will not apply, however, if our board of directors adopts a resolution that any business combination between us and any other person will be exempt from the provisions of the Maryland Business Combination Act. Although our board of directors has adopted such a resolution, there can be no assurance that this resolution will not be altered or repealed in whole or in part at any time. If the resolution is altered or repealed, the provisions of the Maryland Business Combination Act may discourage others from trying to acquire control of us.

As permitted by Maryland law, our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act any and all acquisitions by any person of our common stock. Although our bylaws include such a provision, such a provision may also be amended or eliminated by our board of directors at any time in the future, subject to obtaining confirmation from the SEC that it does not object to us being subject to the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act.

Our common stock may trade at a discount to our net asset value per share.

Common stock of BDCs, as closed-end investment companies, frequently trade at a discount to net asset value. Our common stock has traded at a discount to our net asset value since shortly after our initial public offering. The risk that our common stock may continue to trade at a discount to our net asset value is separate and distinct from the risk that our net asset value per share may decline.

Stockholders may incur dilution if we sell shares of our common stock in one or more offerings at prices below the then current net asset value per share of our common stock.

The 1940 Act prohibits us from selling shares of our common stock at a price below the current net asset value per share of such stock, with certain exceptions. One such exception is prior stockholder approval of issuances below net asset value provided that our board of directors makes certain determinations. We do not currently have stockholder approval of issuances below net asset value.

If we were to sell shares of our common stock below net asset value per share, such sales would result in an immediate dilution to the net asset value per share. This dilution would occur as a result of the sale of shares at a price below the then current net asset value per share of our common stock and a proportionately greater decrease in a stockholder’s interest in our earnings and assets and voting interest in us than the increase in our assets resulting from such issuance.

Because the number of shares of common stock that could be so issued and the timing of any issuance is not currently known, the actual dilutive effect cannot be predicted.

The issuance of subscription rights, warrants or convertible debt that are exchangeable for our common stock, will cause your economic interest and voting power in us to be diluted as a result of our offering of any such securities.

Stockholders who do not fully exercise rights, warrants or convertible debt issued to them in any offering of subscription rights, warrants or convertible debt to purchase our common stock should expect that they will, at the completion of the offering, own a smaller proportional economic interest and have diminished voting power in us than would otherwise be the case if they fully exercised their rights, warrants or convertible debt. We cannot state precisely the amount of any such dilution in share ownership or voting power because we do not know what proportion of the common stock would be purchased as a result of any such offering.

 

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In addition, if the subscription price, warrant price or convertible debt price is less than our net asset value per share of common stock at the time of such offering, then our stockholders would experience an immediate dilution of the aggregate net asset value of their shares as a result of the offering. The amount of any such decrease in net asset value is not predictable because it is not known at this time what the subscription price, warrant price, convertible debt price or net asset value per share will be on the expiration date of such offering or what proportion of our common stock will be purchased as a result of any such offering. The risk of dilution is greater if there are multiple rights offerings. However, our board of directors will make a good faith determination that any offering of subscription rights, warrants or convertible debt would result in a net benefit to existing stockholders.

Finally, our common stockholders will bear will all costs and expenses incurred by us in connection with any proposed offering of subscription rights, warrants or convertible debt that are exchangeable for our common stock, whether or not such offering is actually completed by us.

We may be unable to invest a significant portion of the net proceeds from this offering, which could harm our financial condition and operating results.

Delays in investing the net proceeds raised in this offering may cause our performance to be worse than that of other fully invested business development companies or other lenders or investors pursuing comparable investment strategies. We cannot assure you that we will be able to identify any investments that meet our investment objective or that any investment that we make will produce a positive return. We may be unable to invest the net proceeds of this offering on acceptable terms within the time period that we anticipate or at all, which could harm our financial condition and operating results. We anticipate that, depending on market conditions and the amount of the capital, it may take us a substantial period of time to invest substantially all of the net proceeds from this offering in investments meeting our investment objective. During this period, we will invest the capital primarily in cash, cash equivalents, U.S. government securities or high-quality debt securities maturing in one year or less from the time of investment. These securities may earn yields substantially lower than the income that we anticipate receiving once we are fully invested in accordance with our investment objective.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use substantially all of the net proceeds from the sale of our securities to make investments in middle-market companies in accordance with our investment objective and strategies described in this prospectus, and for general corporate purposes. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to reduce any of our outstanding borrowings.

We anticipate that substantially all of the net proceeds from any offering of our securities will be used as described above within six to twelve months. Pending such use, we will invest the net proceeds primarily in high quality, short-term debt securities consistent with our business development company election and our election to be taxed as a RIC. See “Regulation—Business Development Company Regulations—Temporary Investments.” Our ability to achieve our investment objective may be limited to the extent that the net proceeds from an offering, pending full investment, are held in interest-bearing deposits or other short-term instruments. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business and Structure—We may be unable to invest a significant portion of the net proceeds from an offering of our securities on acceptable terms within an attractive timeframe” for additional information regarding this matter. The supplement to this prospectus relating to an offering will more fully identify the use of proceeds from such an offering.

 

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RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

For the nine months ended November 30, 2016, and the fiscal years ended February 29, 2016, February 28, 2015, 2014 and 2013, February 29, 2012 and February 28, 2011 and 2010, the ratios of earnings to fixed charges of the Company, computed as set forth below, were as follows:

 

    Nine months
ended November 30,
2016
    Year ended
February 29,
2016
    Year ended
February 28,
2015
    Year ended
February 28,
2014
    Year ended
February 28,
2013
    Year ended
February 29,
2012
    Year ended
February 28,
2011
    Year ended
February 28,
2010
 

Earnings to Fixed Charges

    2.43       2.39       2.53       2.40       6.53       10.87       7.41       (1.55

For purposes of computing the ratios of earnings to fixed charges, earnings represent net increase in net assets resulting from operations plus (or minus) income tax provision (benefit) including excise tax expense plus fixed charges. Fixed charges include interest and credit facility fees and amortization of deferred financing fees.

 

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NOTE ABOUT FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our financial statements and related notes and other financial information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. In addition to historical information, the following discussion and other parts of this prospectus contain forward-looking information that involves risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated by such forward-looking information due to the factors discussed in the section entitled “Risk Factors.”

The forward-looking statements are based on our beliefs, assumptions and expectations of our future performance, taking into account all information currently available to us. These beliefs, assumptions and expectations can change as a result of many possible events or factors, not all of which are known to us or are within our control. If a change occurs, our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations may vary materially from those expressed in our forward-looking statements.

The forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus involve risks and uncertainties, including statements as to:

 

    our future operating results;

 

    our business prospects and the prospects of our portfolio companies;

 

    the impact of investments that we expect to make;

 

    our contractual arrangements and relationships with third parties;

 

    the dependence of our future success on the general economy and its impact on the industries in which we invest;

 

    the ability of our portfolio companies to achieve their objectives;

 

    our expected financings and investments;

 

    our regulatory structure and tax treatment, including our ability to operate as a business development company, a regulated investment company and a small business investment company;

 

    the adequacy of our cash resources and working capital;

 

    the timing of cash flows, if any, from the operations of our portfolio companies; and

 

    the ability of our investment adviser to locate suitable investments for us and to monitor and effectively administer our investments.

You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances occurring after the date of this prospectus.

You should understand that, under Sections 27A(b)(2)(B) of the Securities Act and Section 21E(b)(2)B of the Exchange Act, the “safe harbor” provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 do not apply to statements made in connection with any offering of securities pursuant to this prospectus. Any forward-looking statements contained in any reports that the Company may file under the Exchange Act will be excluded from the safe harbor protection provided by Section 21E of the Exchange Act.

 

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PRICE RANGE OF COMMON STOCK AND DISTRIBUTIONS

Our common stock is traded on the NYSE under the symbol “SAR”. Prior to July 30, 2010, our common stock traded on the NYSE under the symbol “GNV.” The following table lists the high and low closing sales prices for the Company’s common stock and such closing sales prices’ percentage of premium or discount to NAV for the last four completed fiscal years and the current fiscal year to date. On February 27, 2017, the last reported closing sale price of our common stock was $22.22 per share which represents a discount of approximately 0.0% to the NAV reported as of November 30, 2016.

 

            Price Range               
     NAV(1)      High      Low      Percentage
of High
Sales Price
as a
Premium
(Discount)
to NAV(2)
    Percentage
of Low
Sales Price
as a

Premium
(Discount)
to NAV(2)
 

Fiscal Year ending February 28, 2017

             

First Quarter

   $ 22.11      $ 16.84      $ 14.03        (23.8 )%      (36.5 )% 

Second Quarter

   $ 23.39      $ 18.15      $ 16.37        (18.9 )%      (26.9 )% 

Third Quarter

   $ 22.21      $ 20.24      $ 17.20        (8.9 )%      (22.6 )% 

Fourth Quarter (through 2017)

    
*
 
   $
23.30
 
   $
18.12
 
     *      
*
 

Fiscal Year ended February 29, 2016

             

First Quarter

   $ 22.75      $ 19.95      $ 15.28        (12.3 )%      (32.8 )% 

Second Quarter

   $ 22.42      $ 17.68      $ 16.83        (21.1 )%      (24.9 )% 

Third Quarter

   $ 22.59      $ 16.65      $ 14.92        (26.3 )%      (34.0 )% 

Fourth Quarter

   $ 22.06      $ 15.93      $ 13.50        (27.8 )%      (38.8 )% 

Fiscal Year ended February 28, 2015

             

First Quarter

   $ 21.41      $ 15.91      $ 15.05        (25.7 )%      (29.7 )% 

Second Quarter

   $ 22.00      $ 16.26      $ 15.15        (26.1 )%      (31.1 )% 

Third Quarter

   $ 22.45      $ 16.32      $ 15.00        (27.3 )%      (33.2 )% 

Fourth Quarter

   $ 22.70      $ 15.84      $ 14.44        (30.2 )%      (36.4 )% 

Year ended February 28, 2014

             

First Quarter

   $ 23.48      $ 19.08      $ 16.35        (18.7 )%      (30.4 )% 

Second Quarter

   $ 23.55      $ 18.70      $ 17.40        (20.6 )%      (26.1 )% 

Third Quarter

   $ 20.39      $ 19.55      $ 15.40        (4.1 )%      (24.5 )% 

Fourth Quarter

   $ 21.08      $ 16.56      $ 15.25        (21.4 )%      (27.7 )% 

Year ended February 28, 2013

             

First Quarter

   $ 25.74      $ 18.29      $ 15.15        (28.9 )%      (41.1 )% 

Second Quarter

   $ 26.96      $ 17.20      $ 16.50        (36.2 )%      (38.8 )% 

Third Quarter

   $ 21.52      $ 19.97      $ 15.17        (7.2 )%      (29.5 )% 

Fourth Quarter

   $ 22.71      $ 18.50      $ 15.07        (18.5 )%      (33.6 )% 

Year ended February 28, 2012

             

First Quarter

   $ 27.89      $ 18.26      $ 16.69        (34.5 )%      (40.2 )% 

Second Quarter

   $ 27.33      $ 17.26      $ 13.58        (36.8 )%      (50.3 )% 

Third Quarter

   $ 24.17      $ 13.82      $ 12.35        (42.8 )%      (48.9 )% 

Fourth Quarter

   $ 24.94      $ 16.15      $ 12.07        (35.2 )%      (51.6 )% 

 

* Net asset value has not yet been calculated for this period.
(1) Net asset value per share is determined as of the last day in the relevant quarter and therefore may not reflect the net asset value per share on the date of the high and low sales prices. The net asset values shown are based on outstanding shares at the end of each period.
(2) Calculated as the respective high or low sales price less net asset value, divided by net asset value.

 

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Holders

The last reported price for our common stock on February 27, 2017 was $22.22 per share. As of February 24, 2017, there were 21 holders of record of our common stock.

Dividend Policy

The following table summarizes our dividends or distributions declared during fiscal 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017:

 

Date Declared

   Record Date      Payment Date      Amount
per Share
 

May 22, 2008

     May 30, 2008        June 13, 2008      $ 3.90  

August 19, 2008

     August 29, 2008        September 15, 2008      $ 3.90  

December 8, 2008

     December 18, 2008        December 29, 2008      $ 2.50  
        

 

 

 

Total Dividends Declared for Fiscal 2009

         $ 10.30  
        

 

 

 

November 13, 2009

     November 25, 2009        December 31, 2009      $ 18.25 (1) 
        

 

 

 

Total Dividends Declared for Fiscal 2010

         $ 18.25  
        

 

 

 

November 12, 2010

     November 19, 2010        December 29, 2010      $ 4.40 (1) 
        

 

 

 

Total Dividends Declared for Fiscal 2011

         $ 4.40  
        

 

 

 

November 15, 2011

     November 25, 2011        December 30, 2011      $ 3.00 (1) 
        

 

 

 

Total Dividends Declared for Fiscal 2012

         $ 3.00  
        

 

 

 

November 9, 2012

     November 20, 2012        December 31, 2012      $ 4.25 (1) 
        

 

 

 

Total Dividends Declared for Fiscal 2013

         $ 4.25  
        

 

 

 

October 30, 2013

     November 13, 2013        December 27, 2013      $ 2.65 (1) 
        

 

 

 

Total Dividends Declared for Fiscal 2014

         $ 2.65  
        

 

 

 

September 24, 2014

     November 3, 2014        November 28, 2014      $ 0.18 (1) 

September 24, 2014

     February 2, 2015        February 27, 2015      $ 0.22 (1) 
        

 

 

 

Total Dividends Declared for Fiscal 2015

         $ 0.40  
        

 

 

 

April 9, 2015

     May 4, 2015        May 29, 2015      $ 0.27 (1) 

May 14, 2015

     May 26, 2015        June 5, 2015      $ 1.00 (1) 

July 8, 2015

     August 3, 2015        August 31, 2015      $ 0.33 (1) 

October 7, 2015

     November 2, 2015        November 30, 2015      $ 0.36 (1) 

January 12, 2015

     February 1, 2016        February 29, 2016      $ 0.40 (1) 
        

 

 

 

Total Dividends Declared for Fiscal 2016

         $ 2.36  
        

 

 

 

March 31, 2016

     April 5, 2016        April 27, 2016      $ 0.41 (1) 

July 7, 2016

     July 29, 2016        August 9, 2016      $ 0.43 (1) 

August 8, 2016

     August 24, 2016        September 5, 2016      $ 0.20 (1) 

October 5, 2016

     October 31, 2016        November 9, 2016      $ 0.44 (1) 

January 12, 2017

     January 31, 2017        February 9, 2017      $ 0.45  
        

 

 

 

Total Dividends Declared for Fiscal 2017 (through February 27, 2017 )

         $ 1.93  
        

 

 

 

 

(1) This dividend was paid by combination of shares of common stock and cash. Please see the discussion immediately following this table for more detail about the composition of this dividend.

Our distributions, if any, will be determined by our board of directors and paid out of assets legally available for distribution. Any such distributions will be taxable to our stockholders, including to those stockholders who receive additional shares of our common stock pursuant to our dividend reinvestment plan. The reinvested dividends under our dividend reinvestment plan increase our gross assets, which will result in higher

 

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management fees, and potentially income incentive fees and capital gains incentive fees payable to Saratoga Investment Advisors. Prior to January 2009, we paid quarterly dividends to our stockholders. However, in January 2009, we suspended the practice of paying quarterly dividends to our stockholders and made five dividend distributions (in December 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010 and 2009) to our stockholders in the form of a combination of cash and the issuance of shares of our common stock as discussed more fully below. On September 24, 2014, our board of directors adopted a new dividend policy pursuant to which we will begin to again pay a regular quarterly cash dividend to our shareholders. In this regard, as noted in the table above, our board of directors has declared a regular quarterly cash dividends to our shareholders since adopting our new dividend policy.

We are prohibited from making distributions that cause us to fail to maintain the asset coverage ratios stipulated by the 1940 Act, subject to certain exceptions, or that violate our debt covenants.

Prior to the adoption of our new dividend policy described above, our board of directors believed that using our capital resources to build and diversify our portfolio served our stockholders’ interests best by better positioning us to generate current income and capital appreciation on an increasing scale. Therefore, our board of directors determined to pay a 20.0% cash and 80.0% stock dividend with respect to a significant portion of our taxable income for our 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011 and 2010 fiscal years in accordance with an IRS revenue procedure or certain IRS private letter rulings. For more detailed information about these dividends, please see the discussion below.

In order to maintain our qualification as a RIC, we must for each fiscal year distribute an amount equal to at least 90.0% of our ordinary net taxable income and realized net short-term capital gains in excess of realized net long-term capital losses, if any, reduced by deductible expenses. In addition, we will be subject to federal excise taxes to the extent we do not distribute during the calendar year at least (1) 98.0% of our ordinary income for the calendar year, (2) 98.2% of our capital gains in excess of capital losses for the one year period ending on October 31 of the calendar year and (3) any ordinary income and net capital gains for preceding years that were not distributed during such years and on which we paid no federal income tax. For the 2013 calendar year, the Company made distributions sufficient such that we did not incur any federal excise taxes. We may elect to withhold from distribution a portion of our ordinary income for the 2014 calendar year and/or portion of the capital gains in excess of capital losses realized during the one year period ending October 31, 2014, if any, and, if we do so, we would expect to incur federal excise taxes as a result.

We maintain an “opt out” dividend reinvestment plan for our common stockholders. As a result, if we declare a dividend, then stockholders’ cash dividends will be automatically reinvested in additional shares of our common stock, unless they specifically “opt out” of the dividend reinvestment plan so as to receive cash dividends.

Pursuant to a revenue procedure (Revenue Procedure 2010-12), or the Revenue Procedure, issued by the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, the IRS indicated that it would treat distributions from certain publicly traded RICs (including BDCs) that were paid part in cash and part in stock as dividends that would satisfy the RIC’s annual distribution requirements and qualify for the dividends paid deduction for federal income tax purposes. In order to qualify for such treatment, the Revenue Procedure required that at least 10.0% of the total distribution be payable in cash and that each stockholder have a right to elect to receive its entire distribution in cash. If too many stockholders elected to receive cash, each stockholder electing to receive cash must receive a proportionate share of the cash to be distributed (although no stockholder electing to receive cash may receive less than 10.0% of such stockholder’s distribution in cash). This Revenue Procedure applied to distributions declared on or before December 31, 2012 with respect to taxable years ending on or before December 31, 2011.

Although this Revenue Procedure is no longer available and did not apply to our distributions for our fiscal year ended February 28, 2014, the revenue procedure was based upon certain applicable provisions of the Code and the Treasury regulations pursuant to which distributions payable in cash or in shares of stock at the election of stockholders are treated as taxable dividends. Consistent with these provisions, the IRS has issued private letter rulings concluding that a RIC may treat a distribution of its own stock as fulfilling its RIC distribution requirements if each stockholder may elect to receive his or her entire distribution in either cash or stock of the RIC subject to a limitation on the aggregate amount of cash to be distributed to all stockholders, which limitation must be at least 20.0% of the aggregate declared distribution.

 

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On October 30, 2013, our board of directors declared a dividend of $2.65 per share payable on December 27, 2013, to common stockholders of record on November 13, 2013. Shareholders had the option to receive payment of the dividend in cash, shares of common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of common stock, provided that the aggregate cash payable to all shareholders was limited to approximately $2.5 million or $0.53 per share.

Based on shareholder elections, the dividend consisted of approximately $2.5 million in cash and 649,500 shares of common stock, or 13.7% of our outstanding common stock prior to the dividend payment. The amount of cash elected to be received was greater than the cash limit of 20.0% of the aggregate dividend amount, thus resulting in the payment of a combination of cash and stock to shareholders who elected to receive cash. The number of shares of common stock comprising the stock portion was calculated based on a price of $15.439 per share, which equaled the volume weighted average trading price per share of the common stock on December 11, 13, and 16, 2013.

On November 9, 2012, our board of directors declared a dividend of $4.25 per share payable on December 31, 2012, to common stockholders of record on November 20, 2012. Shareholders had the option to receive payment of the dividend in cash, shares of common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of common stock, provided that the aggregate cash payable to all shareholders was limited to approximately $3.3 million or $0.85 per share.

Based on shareholder elections, the dividend consisted of $3.3 million in cash and 853,455 shares of common stock, or 22.0% of our outstanding common stock prior to the dividend payment. The amount of cash elected to be received was greater than the cash limit of 20.0% of the aggregate dividend amount, thus resulting in the payment of a combination of cash and stock to shareholders who elected to receive cash. The number of shares of common stock comprising the stock portion was calculated based on a price of $15.444 per share, which equaled the volume weighted average trading price per share of the common stock on December 14, 17 and 19, 2012.

On November 15, 2011, our board of directors declared a dividend of $3.00 per share payable on December 30, 2011, to common stockholders of record on November 25, 2011. Shareholders had the option to receive payment of the dividend in cash, shares of common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of common stock, provided that the aggregate cash payable to all shareholders was limited to $2.0 million or $0.60 per share.

Based on shareholder elections, the dividend consisted of $2.0 million in cash and 599,584 shares of common stock, or 18.0% of our outstanding common stock prior to the dividend payment. The amount of cash elected to be received was greater than the cash limit of 20.0% of the aggregate dividend amount, thus resulting in the payment of a combination of cash and stock to shareholders who elected to receive cash. The number of shares of common stock comprising the stock portion was calculated based on a price of $13.12 per share, which equaled the volume weighted average trading price per share of the common stock on December 20, 21 and 22, 2011.

On November 12, 2010, we declared a dividend of $4.40 per share which was paid on December 29, 2010. Stockholders had the option to receive payment of the dividend in cash, shares of common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of common stock, provided that the aggregate cash payable to all shareholders was limited to $1.2 million or $0.44 per share.

Based on shareholder elections, the dividend consisted of $1.2 million in cash and 596,235 shares of common stock, or 22.0% of our outstanding common stock prior to the dividend payment. The amount of cash elected to be received was greater than the cash limit of 10.0% of the aggregate dividend amount, thus resulting in the payment of a combination of cash and stock to shareholders who elected to receive cash. The number of shares of common stock comprising the stock portion was calculated based on a price of $17.8049 per share, which equaled the volume weighted average trading price per share of the common stock on December 20, 21 and 22, 2010.

 

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On November 13, 2009, we declared a dividend of $18.25 per share payable on December 31, 2009. Stockholders had the option to receive payment of the dividend in cash, shares of common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of common stock, provided that the aggregate cash payable to all stockholders was limited to $2.1 million or $0.25 per share.

Based on stockholder elections, the dividend consisted of $2.1 million in cash and 8,648,725 shares of common stock, or 104.0% of our outstanding common stock prior to the dividend payment. The amount of cash elected to be received was greater than the cash limit of 13.7% of the aggregate dividend amount, thus resulting in the payment of a combination of cash and stock to stockholders who elected to receive cash. The number of shares of common stock comprising the stock portion was calculated based on a price of $1.5099 per share, which equaled the volume weighted average trading price per share of the common stock on December 24 and 28, 2009.

 

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DIVIDEND REINVESTMENT PLAN

We have adopted a dividend reinvestment plan (the “Plan”) that provides that, unless you elect to receive your dividends or other distributions in cash, they will be automatically reinvested by the Plan Administrator, American Stock Transfer & Trust Company LLC, in additional shares of our common stock. If you elect to receive your dividends or other distributions in cash, you will receive them in cash paid by check mailed directly to you by the Plan Administrator. The reinvestment of our distributions does not relieve stockholders of any tax that may be payable on such distributions. For U.S. federal income tax purposes, stockholders will be treated as receiving the amount of the distributions made by us, which amount generally will be either equal to the amount of the cash distribution the stockholder would have received if the stockholder had elected to receive cash or, for shares issued by us, the fair market value of the shares issued to the stockholder.

No action is required on the part of a registered stockholder to have their cash dividend reinvested in shares of our common stock. When the share price of our common stock is trading above net asset value, we intend to primarily use newly issued shares to implement the plan. However, we reserve the right to purchase shares in the open market in connection with our implementation of the plan even if the share price of our common stock is trading below net asset value. Unless you or your brokerage firm decides to opt out of the Plan, the number of shares of common stock you will receive will be determined as follows:

(1) If we use newly issued shares under the Plan, we will issue the new shares at a price equal to 95% of the average of the market prices of our common stock at the close of trading on the ten trading days immediately preceding and ending on the date fixed by our board of directors for the payment of the dividend.

(2) If we use shares purchased in the open market under the Plan, the Plan Administrator will receive the dividend or distribution in cash and will purchase common stock in the open market, on the New York Stock Exchange or elsewhere, for the participants’ accounts. Shares purchased in the open market will be allocated to a participant based on the average purchase price, excluding any brokerage charges or other charges, of all shares purchased with respect to the dividend.

You may withdraw from the Plan at any time by giving written notice to the Plan Administrator, or by telephone in accordance with such reasonable requirements as we and the Plan Administrator may agree upon. If you withdraw or the Plan is terminated, you will receive a certificate for each whole share in your account under the Plan and you will receive a cash payment for any fraction of a share in your account. If you wish, the Plan Administrator will sell your shares and send you the proceeds, minus brokerage commissions.

The Plan Administrator maintains all common stockholders’ accounts in the Plan and gives written confirmation of all transactions in the accounts, including information you may need for tax records. Common stock in your account will be held by the Plan Administrator in non-certificated form. The Plan Administrator will forward to each participant any proxy solicitation material and will vote any shares so held only in accordance with proxies returned to us. Any proxy you receive will include all common stock you have received under the Plan.

There is no brokerage charge for reinvestment of your dividends or distributions in common stock.

Automatically reinvesting dividends and distributions does not mean that you do not have to pay income taxes due upon the reinvestment of such dividends and distributions. See “Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations”.

If you hold your common stock with a brokerage firm that does not participate in the Plan, you will not be able to participate in the Plan and any dividend reinvestment may be effected on different terms than those described above. Consult your financial advisory for more information.

 

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Neither us nor the Plan Administrator nor its nominee or nominees shall be liable for any act done in good faith, or for any good faith omission to act, including without limitation, any claims of liability arising out of failure to terminate a participant’s account upon the participant’s death prior to receipt of notice in writing of such death, and with respect to the price at which shares are purchased or sold for the participant’s account.

The Plan Administrator’s fees under the Plan will be borne by us. There is no direct service charge to participants in the Plan; however, we reserve the right to amend or terminate the Plan, including amending the Plan to include a service charge payable by the participants, if in the judgment of the board of directors the change is warranted. Any amendment to the Plan, except amendments necessary or appropriate to comply with applicable law or the rules and policies of the SEC or any other regulatory authority, require us to provide at least 30 days written notice to each participant. Additional information about the Plan may be obtained from American Stock Transfer & Trust Company LLC, 59 Maiden Lane, New York, New York 10038.

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF

OPERATIONS

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our financial statements and related notes and other financial information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. In addition to historical information, the following discussion and other parts of this prospectus contain forward-looking information that involves risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated by such forward-looking information due to the factors discussed under “Risk Factors” and “Note about Forward-Looking Statements” appearing elsewhere in this prospectus.

OVERVIEW

We are a Maryland corporation that has elected to be treated as a Business Development Company (“BDC”) under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “1940 Act”). Our investment objective is to generate current income and, to a lesser extent, capital appreciation from our investments. We invest primarily in leveraged loans and mezzanine debt issued by private U.S. middle market companies, which we define as companies having EBITDA of between $2 million and $50 million, both through direct lending and through participation in loan syndicates. We may also invest up to 30.0% of the portfolio in opportunistic investments in order to seek to enhance returns to stockholders. Such investments may include investments in distressed debt, which may include securities of companies in bankruptcy, foreign debt, private equity, securities of public companies that are not thinly traded and structured finance vehicles such as collateralized loan obligation funds. On January 22, 2008, we entered into a collateral management agreement with Saratoga CLO, pursuant to which we act as its collateral manager. In addition, we purchased for $30.0 million all of the outstanding subordinated notes of Saratoga CLO. The Saratoga CLO was initially refinanced in October 2013 and its reinvestment period ended in October 2016. On November 15, 2016, we completed the second refinancing of the Saratoga CLO. The Saratoga CLO refinancing, among other things, extended its reinvestment period to October 2018, and extended its legal maturity date to October 2025. Following the refinancing, the Saratoga CLO portfolio remained at the same size and with a similar capital structure of approximately $300 million in aggregate principal amount of predominantly senior secured first lien term loans. In addition to refinancing its liabilities, we also purchased $4.5 million in aggregate principal amount of the Class F notes tranche of the Saratoga CLO at par, with a coupon of 8.5%.

Although we have no current intention to do so, to the extent we invest in private equity funds, we will limit our investments in entities that are excluded from the definition of “investment company” under Section 3(c)(1) or Section 3(c)(7) of the 1940 Act, which includes private equity funds, to no more than 15% of its net assets.

We have elected and qualified to be treated as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”).

Corporate History and Recent Developments

We commenced operations, at the time known as GSC Investment Corp., on March 23, 2007 and completed an initial public offering of shares of common stock on March 28, 2007. Prior to July 30, 2010, we were externally managed and advised by GSCP (NJ), L.P., an entity affiliated with GSC Group, Inc. In connection with the consummation of a recapitalization transaction on July 30, 2010, as described below we engaged Saratoga Investment Advisors (“SIA”) to replace GSCP (NJ), L.P. as our investment adviser and changed our name to Saratoga Investment Corp.

As a result of the event of default under a revolving securitized credit facility with Deutsche Bank we previously had in place, in December 2008 we engaged the investment banking firm of Stifel, Nicolaus & Company to evaluate strategic transaction opportunities and consider alternatives for us. On April 14, 2010, GSC Investment Corp. entered into a stock purchase agreement with Saratoga Investment Advisors and certain of its

 

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affiliates and an assignment, assumption and novation agreement with Saratoga Investment Advisors, pursuant to which GSC Investment Corp. assumed certain rights and obligations of Saratoga Investment Advisors under a debt commitment letter Saratoga Investment Advisors received from Madison Capital Funding LLC, which indicated Madison Capital Funding’s willingness to provide GSC Investment Corp. with a $40.0 million senior secured revolving credit facility, subject to the satisfaction of certain terms and conditions. In addition, GSC Investment Corp. and GSCP (NJ), L.P. entered into a termination and release agreement, to be effective as of the closing of the transaction contemplated by the stock purchase agreement, pursuant to which GSCP (NJ), L.P., among other things, agreed to waive any and all accrued and unpaid deferred incentive management fees up to and as of the closing of the transaction contemplated by the stock purchase agreement but continued to be entitled to receive the base management fees earned through the date of the closing of the transaction contemplated by the stock purchase agreement.

The Saratoga CLO remains effectively 100% owned and managed by Saratoga Investment Corp. We receive a base management fee of 0.10% and a subordinated management fee of 0.40% of the fee basis amount at the beginning of the collection period, paid quarterly to the extent of available proceeds. We are also entitled to an incentive management fee equal to 20.0% of excess cash flow to the extent the Saratoga CLO subordinated notes receive an internal rate of return paid in cash equal to or greater than 12.0%.

On July 30, 2010, the transactions contemplated by the stock purchase agreement with Saratoga Investment Advisors and certain of its affiliates were completed, the private sale of 986,842 shares of our common stock for $15.0 million in aggregate purchase price to Saratoga Investment Advisors and certain of its affiliates closed, the Company entered into the Credit Facility, and the Company began doing business as Saratoga Investment Corp.

We used the net proceeds from the private sale transaction and a portion of the funds available to us under the Credit Facility to pay the full amount of principal and accrued interest, including default interest, outstanding under our revolving securitized credit facility with Deutsche Bank. The revolving securitized credit facility with Deutsche Bank was terminated in connection with our payment of all amounts outstanding thereunder on July 30, 2010.

On August 12, 2010, we effected a one-for-ten reverse stock split of our outstanding common stock. As a result of the reverse stock split, every ten shares of our common stock were converted into one share of our common stock. Any fractional shares received as a result of the reverse stock split were redeemed for cash. The total cash payment in lieu of shares was $230. Immediately after the reverse stock split, we had 2,680,842 shares of our common stock outstanding.

In January 2011, we registered for public resale of the 986,842 shares of our common stock issued to Saratoga Investment Advisors and certain of its affiliates.

On March 28, 2012, our wholly-owned subsidiary, Saratoga Investment Corp. SBIC, LP (“SBIC LP”), received an SBIC license from the Small Business Administration (“SBA”).

In May 2013, we issued $48.3 million in aggregate principal amount of our 7.50% unsecured notes due 2020 (the “2020 Notes”) for net proceeds of $46.1 million after deducting underwriting commissions of $1.9 million and offering costs of $0.3 million. The proceeds included the underwriters’ full exercise of their overallotment option. Interest on these 2020 Notes is paid quarterly in arrears on February 15, May 15, August 15 and November 15, at a rate of 7.50% per year, beginning August 15, 2013. The 2020 Notes mature on May 31, 2020 and since May 31, 2016, may be redeemed in whole or in part at any time or from time to time at our option. The 2020 Notes were listed on the NYSE under the trading symbol “SAQ” with a par value of $25.00 per share. The 2020 Notes were redeemed in full on January 13, 2017.

On April 2, 2015, the SBA issued a “green light” letter inviting us to continue the application process to obtain a license to form and operate its second SBIC subsidiary. On September 27, 2016, the SBA informed us

 

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that as part of their continued review of our application for a second license, and in order to ensure that they were reviewing the most current information available, we would need to update all previously submitted materials and invited us to reapply. As a result of this request, with which we are in the process of complying, the existing “green light” letter that the SBA issued to us has expired. If approved in the future, a second SBIC license would provide us an incremental source of long-term capital by permitting us to issue up to $150.0 million of additional SBA-guaranteed debentures in addition to the $150.0 million already approved under the first license.

On May 29, 2015, we entered into a Debt Distribution Agreement with Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc. through which we may offer for sale, from time to time, up to $20.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2020 Notes through an At-the-Market (“ATM”) offering. As of November 30, 2016, the Company sold 539,725 bonds with a principal of $13,493,125 at an average price of $25.31 for aggregate net proceeds of $13,385,766 (net of transaction costs).

On December 21, 2016, we issued $74.5 million in aggregate principal amount of our 6.75% fixed-rate notes due 2023 (the “2023 Notes”) for net proceeds of $72.1 million after deducting underwriting commissions of approximately $2.0 million and offering costs of approximately $0.5 million. The issuance included the exercise of substantially all of the underwriters’ option to purchase an additional $9.8 million aggregate principal amount of 2023 Notes within 30 days. Interest on the 2023 Notes is paid quarterly in arrears on March 15, June 15, September 15 and December 15, at a rate of 6.75% per year, beginning March 30, 2017. The 2023 Notes mature on December 20, 2023, and commencing December 21, 2019, may be redeemed in whole or in part at any time or from time to time at our option. The net proceeds from the offering were used to repay all of the outstanding indebtedness under the 2020 Notes, which amounts to $61.8 million, and for general corporate purposes in accordance with our investment objective and strategies. The 2020 Notes were redeemed in full on January 13, 2017.

Critical Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation

The preparation of financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions affecting amounts reported in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. We have identified investment valuation, revenue recognition and the recognition of capital gains incentive fee expense as our most critical accounting estimates. We continuously evaluate our estimates, including those related to the matters described below. These estimates are based on the information that is currently available to us and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates under different assumptions or conditions. A discussion of our critical accounting policies follows.

Investment Valuation

The Company accounts for its investments at fair value in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures (“ASC 820”). ASC 820 defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value, establishes a fair value hierarchy based on the quality of inputs used to measure fair value and enhances disclosure requirements for fair value measurements. ASC 820 requires the Company to assume that its investments are to be sold at the balance sheet date in the principal market to independent market participants, or in the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market, which may be a hypothetical market. Market participants are defined as buyers and sellers in the principal or most advantageous market that are independent, knowledgeable, and willing and able to transact.

Investments for which market quotations are readily available are fair valued at such market quotations obtained from independent third party pricing services and market makers subject to any decision by our board of directors to approve a fair value determination to reflect significant events affecting the value of these investments.

 

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We value investments for which market quotations are not readily available at fair value as approved, in good faith, by our board of directors based on input from Saratoga Investment Advisers, the audit committee of our board of directors and a third party independent valuation firm. Determinations of fair value may involve subjective judgments and estimates. The types of factors that may be considered in determining the fair value of our investments include the nature and realizable value of any collateral, the portfolio company’s ability to make payments, market yield trend analysis, the markets in which the portfolio company does business, comparison to publicly traded companies, discounted cash flow and other relevant factors.

We undertake a multi-step valuation process each quarter when valuing investments for which market quotations are not readily available, as described below:

 

    Each investment is initially valued by the responsible investment professionals of Saratoga Investment Advisors and preliminary valuation conclusions are documented and discussed with our senior management; and

 

    An independent valuation firm engaged by our board of directors reviews a selection of these preliminary valuations each quarter so that the valuation of each investment for which market quotes are not readily available is reviewed by the independent valuation firm at least once each fiscal year.

In addition, all our investments are subject to the following valuation process:

 

    The audit committee of our board of directors reviews and approves each preliminary valuation and Saratoga Investment Advisors and an independent valuation firm (if applicable) will supplement the preliminary valuation to reflect any comments provided by the audit committee; and

 

    Our board of directors discusses the valuations and approves the fair value of each investment, in good faith, based on the input of Saratoga Investment Advisors, independent valuation firm (to the extent applicable) and the audit committee of our board of directors.

Our investment in Saratoga Investment Corp. CLO 2013-1, Ltd. (“Saratoga CLO”) is carried at fair value, which is based on a discounted cash flow model that utilizes prepayment, re-investment and loss assumptions based on historical experience and projected performance, economic factors, the characteristics of the underlying cash flow, and comparable yields for equity interests in collateralized loan obligation funds similar to Saratoga CLO, when available, as determined by SIA and recommended to our board of directors. Specifically, we use Intex cash flow models, or an appropriate substitute, to form the basis for the valuation of our investment in Saratoga CLO. The models use a set of assumptions including projected default rates, recovery rates, reinvestment rate and prepayment rates in order to arrive at estimated valuations. The assumptions are based on available market data and projections provided by third parties as well as management estimates. We use the output from the Intex models (i.e., the estimated cash flows) to perform a discounted cash flow analysis on expected future cash flows to determine a valuation for our investment in Saratoga CLO.

Revenue Recognition

Income Recognition

Interest income, adjusted for amortization of premium and accretion of discount, is recorded on an accrual basis to the extent that such amounts are expected to be collected. The Company stops accruing interest on its investments when it is determined that interest is no longer collectible. Discounts and premiums on investments purchased are accreted/amortized over the life of the respective investment using the effective yield method. The amortized cost of investments represents the original cost adjusted for the accretion of discounts and amortization of premiums on investments.

Loans are generally placed on non-accrual status when there is reasonable doubt that principal or interest will be collected. Accrued interest is generally reserved when a loan is placed on non-accrual status. Interest

 

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payments received on non-accrual loans may be recognized as a reduction in principal depending upon management’s judgment regarding collectability. Non-accrual loans are restored to accrual status when past due principal and interest is paid and, in management’s judgment, are likely to remain current, although we may make exceptions to this general rule if the loan has sufficient collateral value and is in the process of collection.

Interest income on our investment in Saratoga CLO is recorded using the effective interest method in accordance with the provisions of ASC Topic 325-40,  Investments-Other, Beneficial Interests in Securitized Financial Assets , based on the anticipated yield and the estimated cash flows over the projected life of the investment. Yields are revised when there are changes in actual or estimated cash flows due to changes in prepayments and/or re-investments, credit losses or asset pricing. Changes in estimated yield are recognized as an adjustment to the estimated yield over the remaining life of the investment from the date the estimated yield was changed.

Payment-in-Kind Interest

The Company holds debt investments in its portfolio that contain a payment-in-kind (“PIK”) interest provision. The PIK interest, which represents contractually deferred interest added to the investment balance that is generally due at maturity, is generally recorded on the accrual basis to the extent such amounts are expected to be collected. We stop accruing PIK interest if we do not expect the issuer to be able to pay all principal and interest when due.

Capital Gains Incentive Fee

The Company records an expense accrual relating to the capital gains incentive fee payable by the Company to its investment adviser when the unrealized gains on its investments exceed all realized capital losses on its investments given the fact that a capital gains incentive fee would be owed to the investment adviser if the Company were to liquidate its investment portfolio at such time. The actual incentive fee payable to the Company’s investment adviser related to capital gains will be determined and payable in arrears at the end of each fiscal year and will include only realized capital gains for the period.

Revenues

We generate revenue in the form of interest income and capital gains on the debt investments that we hold and capital gains, if any, on equity interests that we may acquire. We expect our debt investments, whether in the form of leveraged loans or mezzanine debt, to have terms of up to ten years, and to bear interest at either a fixed or floating rate. Interest on debt will be payable generally either quarterly or semi-annually. In some cases, our debt investments may provide for a portion of the interest to be PIK. To the extent interest is paid-in-kind, it will be payable through the increase of the principal amount of the obligation by the amount of interest due on the then-outstanding aggregate principal amount of such obligation. The principal amount of the debt and any accrued but unpaid interest will generally become due at the maturity date. In addition, we may generate revenue in the form of commitment, origination, structuring or diligence fees, fees for providing managerial assistance or investment management services and possibly consulting fees. Any such fees will be generated in connection with our investments and recognized as earned. We may also invest in preferred equity securities that pay dividends on a current basis.

On January 22, 2008, we entered into a collateral management agreement with Saratoga CLO, pursuant to which we act as its collateral manager. The Saratoga CLO was initially refinanced in October 2013 and its reinvestment period ended in October 2016. On November 15, 2016, we completed the second refinancing of the Saratoga CLO. The Saratoga CLO refinancing, among other things, extended its reinvestment period to October 2018, and extended its legal maturity date to October 2025. Following the refinancing, the Saratoga CLO portfolio remained at the same size and with a similar capital structure of approximately $300300.0 million in aggregate principal amount of predominantly senior secured first lien term loans. In addition to refinancing its

 

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liabilities, we also purchased $4.5 million in aggregate principal amount of the Class F notes tranche of the Saratoga CLO at par, with a coupon of LIBOR plus 8.5%.

The Saratoga CLO remains effectively 100% owned and managed by Saratoga Investment Corp. Following the refinancing, we receive a base management fee of 0.10% and a subordinated management fee of 0.40% of the fee basis amount at the beginning of the collection period, paid quarterly to the extent of available proceeds. We are also entitled to an incentive management fee equal to 20.0% of excess cash flow to the extent the Saratoga CLO subordinated notes receive an internal rate of return paid in cash equal to or greater than 12.0%.

We recognize interest income on our investment in the subordinated notes of Saratoga CLO using the effective interest method, based on the anticipated yield and the estimated cash flows over the projected life of the investment. Yields are revised when there are changes in actual or estimated cash flows due to changes in prepayments and/or re-investments, credit losses or asset pricing. Changes in estimated yield are recognized as an adjustment to the estimated yield over the remaining life of the investment from the date the estimated yield was changed.

Expenses

Our primary operating expenses include the payment of investment advisory and management fees, professional fees, directors and officers insurance, fees paid to independent directors and administrator expenses, including our allocable portion of our administrator’s overhead. Our investment advisory and management fees compensate our investment adviser for its work in identifying, evaluating, negotiating, closing and monitoring our investments. We bear all other costs and expenses of our operations and transactions, including those relating to:

 

    organization;

 

    calculating our net asset value (including the cost and expenses of any independent valuation firm);

 

    expenses incurred by our investment adviser payable to third parties, including agents, consultants or other advisers, in monitoring our financial and legal affairs and in monitoring our investments and performing due diligence on our prospective portfolio companies;

 

    expenses incurred by our investment adviser payable for travel and due diligence on our prospective portfolio companies;

 

    interest payable on debt, if any, incurred to finance our investments;

 

    offerings of our common stock and other securities;

 

    investment advisory and management fees;

 

    fees payable to third parties, including agents, consultants or other advisers, relating to, or associated with, evaluating and making investments;

 

    transfer agent and custodial fees;

 

    federal and state registration fees;

 

    all costs of registration and listing our common stock on any securities exchange;

 

    federal, state and local taxes;

 

    independent directors’ fees and expenses;

 

    costs of preparing and filing reports or other documents required by governmental bodies (including the SEC and the SBA);

 

    costs of any reports, proxy statements or other notices to common stockholders including printing costs;

 

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    our fidelity bond, directors and officers errors and omissions liability insurance, and any other insurance premiums;

 

    direct costs and expenses of administration, including printing, mailing, long distance telephone, copying, secretarial and other staff, independent auditors and outside legal costs; and

 

    administration fees and all other expenses incurred by us or, if applicable, the administrator in connection with administering our business (including payments under the administration agreement based upon our allocable portion of the administrator’s overhead in performing its obligations under an administration agreement, including rent and the allocable portion of the cost of our officers and their respective staffs (including travel expenses)).

Pursuant to the Management Agreement that we had with GSCP (NJ), L.P., our former investment adviser and administrator, we had agreed to pay GSCP (NJ), L.P. as investment adviser a quarterly base management fee of 1.75% of the average value of our total assets (other than cash or cash equivalents but including assets purchased with borrowed funds) at the end of the two most recently completed fiscal quarters and an incentive fee.

The incentive fee had two parts:

 

    A fee, payable quarterly in arrears, equal to 20.0% of our pre-incentive fee net investment income, expressed as a rate of return on the value of the net assets at the end of the immediately preceding quarter, that exceeded a 1.875% quarterly hurdle rate measured as of the end of each fiscal quarter. Under this provision, in any fiscal quarter, our investment adviser received no incentive fee unless our pre-incentive fee net investment income exceeded the hurdle rate of 1.875%. Amounts received as a return of capital were not included in calculating this portion of the incentive fee. Since the hurdle rate was based on net assets, a return of less than the hurdle rate on total assets could still have resulted in an incentive fee.

 

    A fee, payable at the end of each fiscal year, equal to 20.0% of our net realized capital gains, if any, computed net of all realized capital losses and unrealized capital depreciation, in each case on a cumulative basis, less the aggregate amount of capital gains incentive fees paid to the investment adviser through such date.

We deferred cash payment of any incentive fee otherwise earned by our former investment adviser if, during the then most recent four full fiscal quarters ending on or prior to the date such payment was to be made, the sum of (a) our aggregate distributions to our stockholders and (b) our change in net assets (defined as total assets less liabilities) (before taking into account any incentive fees payable during that period) was less than 7.5% of our net assets at the beginning of such period. These calculations were appropriately pro-rated for the first three fiscal quarters of operation and adjusted for any share issuances or repurchases during the applicable period. Such incentive fee would become payable on the next date on which such test had been satisfied for the most recent four full fiscal quarters or upon certain terminations of the Management Agreement. We commenced deferring cash payment of incentive fees during the quarterly period ended August 31, 2007, and continued to defer such payments through the quarterly period ended May 31, 2010. As of July 30, 2010, the date on which GSCP (NJ), L.P. ceased to be our investment adviser and administrator, we owed GSCP (NJ), L.P. $2.9 million in fees for services previously provided to us; of which $0.3 million has been paid by us. GSCP (NJ), L.P. agreed to waive payment by us of the remaining $2.6 million in connection with the consummation of the stock purchase transaction with Saratoga Investment Advisors and certain of its affiliates described elsewhere in this Prospectus.

The terms of the Management Agreement with Saratoga Investment Advisors, our current investment adviser, are substantially similar to the terms of the Management Agreement we had entered into with GSCP (NJ), L.P., our former investment adviser, except for the following material distinctions in the fee terms:

 

   

The capital gains portion of the incentive fee was reset with respect to gains and losses from May 31, 2010, and therefore losses and gains incurred prior to such time will not be taken into account when

 

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calculating the capital gains fee payable to Saratoga Investment Advisors and, as a result, Saratoga Investment Advisors will be entitled to 20.0% of net gains that arise after May 31, 2010. In addition, the cost basis for computing realized gains and losses on investments held by us as of May 31, 2010 equal the fair value of such investment as of such date. Under the Management Agreement with our former investment adviser, GSCP (NJ), L.P., the capital gains fee was calculated from March 21, 2007, and the gains were substantially outweighed by losses.

 

    Under the “catch up” provision, 100.0% of our pre-incentive fee net investment income with respect to that portion of such pre-incentive fee net investment income that exceeds 1.875% but is less than or equal to 2.344% in any fiscal quarter is payable to Saratoga Investment Advisors. This will enable Saratoga Investment Advisors to receive 20.0% of all net investment income as such amount approaches 2.344% in any quarter, and Saratoga Investment Advisors will receive 20.0% of any additional net investment income. Under the Management Agreement with our former investment adviser, GSCP (NJ), L.P. only received 20.0% of the excess net investment income over 1.875%.

 

    We will no longer have deferral rights regarding incentive fees in the event that the distributions to stockholders and change in net assets is less than 7.5% for the preceding four fiscal quarters.

To the extent that any of our leveraged loans are denominated in a currency other than U.S. dollars, we may enter into currency hedging contracts to reduce our exposure to fluctuations in currency exchange rates. We may also enter into interest rate hedging agreements. Such hedging activities, which will be subject to compliance with applicable legal requirements, may include the use of interest rate caps, futures, options and forward contracts. Costs incurred in entering into or settling such contracts will be borne by us.

New Accounting Pronouncements

In August 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230), Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments (“ASU 2016-15”), which is intended to reduce the existing diversity in practice in how certain cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the statement of cash flows. The guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods therein. Early adoption is permitted. Management is currently evaluating the impact ASU 2016-15 will have on the consolidated financial statements and disclosures.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Amendments to the Leases (“ASC Topic 842”), which will require for all operating leases the recognition of a right-of-use asset and a lease liability, in the statement of financial position. The lease cost will be allocated over the lease term on a straight-line basis. This guidance is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Management is currently evaluating the impact these changes will have on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and disclosures.

In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01, Financial Instruments—Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities (“ASU 2016-01”). ASU 2016-01 retains many current requirements for the classification and measurement of financial instruments; however, it significantly revises an entity’s accounting related to (1) the classification and measurement of investments in equity securities and (2) the presentation of certain fair value changes for financial liabilities measured at fair value. ASU 2016-01 also amends certain disclosure requirements associated with the fair value of financial instruments. This guidance is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and early adoption is not permitted for public business entities. Management is currently evaluating the impact the adoption of this standard has on our consolidated financial statements and disclosures.

In August 2014, the FASB issued new accounting guidance that requires management to assess an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern by incorporating and expanding upon certain principles that are currently in U.S. auditing standards. The amendments provide a definition of the term “substantial doubt” and include

 

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principles for considering the mitigating effect of management’s plans. The amendments also require an evaluation every reporting period, including interim periods for a period of one year after the date that the financial statements are issued (or available to be issued), and certain disclosures when substantial doubt is alleviated or not alleviated. The amendments in this update are effective for reporting periods ending after December 15, 2016. Management does not believe these changes will have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and disclosures.

In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) , which supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in Revenue Recognition (Topic 605). Under the new guidance, an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. In May 2016, ASU 2016-12 amended ASU 2014-09 and deferred the effective period to December 15, 2017. Management is currently evaluating the impact these changes will have on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and disclosures.

Portfolio and investment activity

Corporate Debt Portfolio Overview

 

     At November 30,
2016
    At February 29,
2016
    At February 28,
2015
    At February 28,
2014
 
     ($ in millions)     ($ in millions)     ($ in millions)     ($ in millions)  

Number of investments(1)

     52       59       63       59  

Number of portfolio companies(1)

     30       34       34       37  

Average investment size(1)

   $ 5.1     $ 4.6     $ 3.5     $ 3.2  

Weighted average maturity(1)

     3.4 yrs       3.8yrs       3.7yrs       4.3yrs  

Number of industries(1)

     11       11       14       16  

Average investment per portfolio company(1)

   $ 8.9     $ 8.0     $ 6.6     $ 5.0  

Non-performing or delinquent
investments(1)

   $ 0.0     $ 0.0     $ 0.0     $ 0.3  

Fixed rate debt (% of interest bearing portfolio)(2)

   $ 46.7(18.3)   $ 97.9(40.0)   $ 82.5(40.6)   $ 70.6(40.1)

Weighted average current coupon(2)

     11.9     11.5     12.0     12.5

Floating rate debt (% of interest bearing portfolio)(2)

   $   208.5(81.7)   $ 146.8(60.0)   $ 120.8(59.4)   $ 105.4(59.9)

Weighted average current spread over LIBOR(2)(3)

     10.1     9.1     8.7     7.3

 

(1) Excludes our investment in the subordinated notes of Saratoga CLO.
(2) Excludes our investment in the subordinated notes of Saratoga CLO and investments in equity interests.
(3) Calculation uses either 1-month or 3-month LIBOR, depending on the contractual turns, and after factoring in any existing LIBOR floors.

During the three months ended November 30, 2016, we invested $30.1 million in new or existing portfolio companies and had $23.8 million in aggregate amount of exits and repayments resulting in net investments of $6.3 million for the period. During the three months ended November 30, 2015, we invested $15.3 million in new or existing portfolio companies and had $27.9 million in aggregate amount of exits and repayments resulting in net repayments of $12.6 million for the period.

During the nine months ended November 30, 2016, we invested $85.9 million in new or existing portfolio companies and had $94.7 million in aggregate amount of exits and repayments resulting in net repayments of $8.8 million for the period. During the nine months ended November 30, 2015, we invested $57.4 million in new

 

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or existing portfolio companies and had $62.7 million in aggregate amount of exits and repayments resulting in net repayments of $5.3 million for the period.

During the fiscal year ended February 29, 2016, we invested $109.2 million in new or existing portfolio companies and had $68.2 million in aggregate amount of exits and repayments resulting in net investments of $41.0 million for the year.

During the fiscal year ended February 28, 2015, we invested $104.9 million in new or existing portfolio companies and had $73.3 million in aggregate amount of exits and repayments resulting in net investments of $31.6 million for the year.

During the fiscal year ended February 28, 2014, we invested $121.1 million in new or existing portfolio companies and had $71.6 million in aggregate amount of exits and repayments resulting in net investments of $49.5 million for the year.

Our portfolio composition at November 30, 2016, February 29, 2016, February 28, 2015 and February 28, 2014 at fair value was as follows:

Portfolio composition

 

    At November 30, 2016     At February 29, 2016     At February 28, 2015     At February 28, 2014  
    Percentage
of Total
Portfolio
    Weighted
Average
Current
Yield
    Percentage
of Total
Portfolio
    Weighted
Average
Current
Yield
    Percentage
of Total
Portfolio
    Weighted
Average
Current
Yield
    Percentage
of Total
Portfolio
    Weighted
Average
Current
Yield
 

Syndicated loans

    3.5     5.4     4.2     8.2     7.6     6.2     15.7     6.2

First lien term loans

    57.8       10.5       50.9       10.6       60.3       11.0       53.6       11.5  

Second lien term loans

    28.9       11.7       31.1       11.5       14.8       11.2       13.5       11.1  

Unsecured notes

    —         —         —         —         1.8       13.7       2.7       15.2  

Saratoga CLO subordinated notes

    —         —         4.5       16.4       7.1       25.2       9.5       18.6  

Structured finance securities

    5.5       12.2       —         —         —         —         —         —    

Equity interests

    4.3       0.7       9.3       N/A       8.4       N/A       5.0       N/A  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total

    100.0     10.8     100.0     11.1     100.0     11.8     100.0     11.8
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Our investment in the subordinated notes of Saratoga CLO represents a first loss position in a portfolio that, at November 30, 2016, February 29, 2016, February 28, 2015 and February 28, 2014 was composed of $297.5 million, $302.7 million, $296.9 million and $301.3 million, respectively, in aggregate principal amount of predominantly senior secured first lien term loans. This investment is subject to unique risks. (See “Risk Factors—Our investment in Saratoga CLO constitutes a leveraged investment in a portfolio of predominantly senior secured first lien term loans and is subject to additional risks and volatility”). We do not consolidate the Saratoga CLO portfolio in our consolidated financial statements. Accordingly, the metrics below do not include the underlying Saratoga CLO portfolio investments. However, at November 30, 2016 and February 29, 2016, $286.1 million or 99.4% and $283.3 million or 99.4%, respectively, of the Saratoga CLO portfolio investments in terms of market value had a CMR (as defined below) color rating of green or yellow and none and one Saratoga CLO portfolio investment was in default with a fair value of $0.8 million, respectively. At February 28, 2015, $291.6 million or 98.8% of the Saratoga CLO portfolio investments in terms of market value had a CMR (as defined below) color rating of green or yellow and two Saratoga CLO portfolio investments were in default with a fair value of $2.7 million. For more information relating to Saratoga CLO, see the audited financial statements for Saratoga CLO included elsewhere herein.

Saratoga Investment Advisors normally grades all of our investments using a credit and monitoring rating system (“CMR”). The CMR consists of a single component: a color rating. The color rating is based on several

 

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criteria, including financial and operating strength, probability of default, and restructuring risk. The color ratings are characterized as follows: (Green)—strong credit; (Yellow)—satisfactory credit; (Red)—payment default risk, in payment default and/or significant restructuring activity.

The CMR distribution of our investments at November 30, 2016, February 29, 2016 and February 28, 2015 was as follows:

Portfolio CMR distribution

 

     At November 30, 2016     At February 29, 2016     At February 28, 2015  

Color Score

   Investments
at
Fair Value
     Percentage
of Total
Portfolio
    Investments
at
Fair Value
     Percentage
of Total
Portfolio
    Investments
at
Fair Value
     Percentage
of Total
Portfolio
 
     ($ in thousands)  

Green

   $ 246,130        88.7   $ 240,623        84.7   $ 191,606        79.7

Yellow

     8,423        3.0       4,058        1.4       11,635        4.8  

Red

     8        0.0       8        0.0       101        0.0  

N/A(1)

     23,009        8.3       39,307        13.9       37,196        15.5  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 277,570        100.0   $ 283,996        100.0   $ 240,538        100.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1) Comprised of our investment in the subordinated notes of Saratoga CLO and equity interests.

The CMR distribution of Saratoga CLO investments at November 30, 2016, February 29, 2016 and February 28, 2015 was as follows:

Portfolio CMR distribution

 

     At November 30, 2016     At February 29, 2016     At February 28, 2015  

Color Score

   Investments
at
Fair Value
     Percentage
of Total
Portfolio
    Investments
at
Fair Value
     Percentage
of Total
Portfolio
    Investments
at
Fair Value
     Percentage
of Total
Portfolio
 
     ($ in thousands)  

Green

   $ 257,697        88.9   $ 251,570        88.3   $ 278,769        94.4

Yellow

     28,425        9.8       31,752        11.1       12,875        4.4  

Red

     3,840        1.3       1,331        0.5       2,978        1.0  

N/A(1)

     37        0.0       192        0.1       617        0.2  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 289,999        100.0   $ 284,845        100.0   $ 295,239        100.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1) Comprised of Saratoga CLO’s equity interests.

 

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Portfolio composition by industry grouping at fair value

The following table shows our portfolio composition by industry grouping at fair value at November 30, 2016, February 29, 2016 and February 28, 2015:

 

     At November 30, 2016     At February 29, 2016     At February 28, 2015  
     Investments
at
Fair Value
     Percentage
of Total
Portfolio
    Investments
at
Fair Value
     Percentage
of Total
Portfolio
    Investments
at
Fair Value
     Percentage
of Total
Portfolio
 
     ($ in thousands)  

Business Services

   $ 146,250        52.7   $ 88,596        31.2   $ 52,128        21.7

Consumer Services

     20,737        7.5       43,109        15.2       24,169        10.0  

Software as a Service

     —          —       39,187        13.8       53,525        22.3  

Healthcare Services

     28,128        10.1       24,635        8.7       20,641        8.6  

Media

     18,522        6.7       16,574        5.8       15,026        6.2  

Automotive Aftermarket

     —          —       14,707        5.2       10,980        4.6  

Structured Finance(1)

     15,266        5.5       12,828        4.5       17,031        7.1  

Education

     10,919        3.9       10,694        3.8       101        0.0  

Metals

     8,857        3.2       10,526        3.7       15,262        6.3  

Food and Beverage

         8,423        3.0       9,131        3.2       10,348        4.3  

Consumer Products

     787        0.3       7,642        2.7       9,239        3.9  

Building Products

     2,000        0.7       6,367        2.2       3,436        1.4  

Electronics

     —          —       —        —       6,667        2.8  

Publishing

     —          —       —        —       1,985        0.8  

Aerospace and Defense

     1,020        0.4       —        —       —        —  

Real Estate

     16,661        6.0       9,537        3.4       —        —  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     $277,570        100.0%     $ 283,996        100.0   $ 240,538        100.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1) Comprised of our investment in the subordinated notes of Saratoga CLO.

 

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The following table shows Saratoga CLO’s portfolio composition by industry grouping at fair value at November 30, 2016, February 29, 2016 and February 28, 2015:

 

     At November 30, 2016     At February 29, 2016     At February 28, 2015  
     Investments
at
Fair Value
     Percentage
of Total
Portfolio
    Investments
at
Fair Value
     Percentage
of Total
Portfolio
    Investments
at
Fair Value
     Percentage
of Total
Portfolio
 
     ($ in thousands)  

Services: Business

   $ 41,241        14.2   $ 37,308        13.1   $ 42,751        14.5

Healthcare & Pharmaceuticals

     30,765        10.6       28,339        9.9       35,341        11.9  

Chemicals/Plastics

     23,271        8.0       24,714        8.7       25,758        8.7  

Retailers (Except Food and Drugs)

     14,664        5.1       18,898        6.6       22,026        7.4  

Financial Intermediaries

     7,760        2.7       13,559        4.8       10,806        3.7  

Aerospace and Defense

     13,008        4.5       12,580        4.4       7,287        2.5  

Industrial Equipment

     9,921        3.4       11,777        4.1       15,290        5.2  

Conglomerate

     12,767        4.4       11,770        4.1       19,928        6.7  

Telecommunications

     11,741        4.0       11,364        4.0       6,675        2.3  

Banking, Finance, Insurance & Real Estate

     15,678        5.4       10,175        3.6       —        —  

High Tech Industries

     16,703        5.8       9,451        3.3       —        —  

Electronics/Electric

     8,344        2.9       9,342        3.3       12,904        4.4  

Leisure Goods/Activities/Movies

     9,198        3.3       8,009        2.8       12,629        4.3  

Technology

     3,883        1.3       7,774        2.7       1,008        0.3  

Utilities

     2,894        1.0       6,975        2.4       6,281        2.1  

Food Services

     5,872        2.0       5,944        2.1       5,886        2.0  

Food Products

     3,150        1.1       5,694        2.0       5,856        2.0  

Automotive

     5,004        1.7       5,470        1.9       6,650        2.2  

Lodging and Casinos

     4,352        1.5       4,958        1.8       5,826        2.0  

Media

     10,732        3.7       4,768        1.7       2,004        0.7  

Insurance

     2,988        1.0       4,712        1.7       5,425        1.8  

Containers/Glass Products

     1,993        0.7       4,168        1.5       4,313        1.5  

Cable and Satellite Television

     1,617        0.6       3,557        1.2       2,646        0.9  

Publishing

     4,938        1.7       3,029        1.1       5,627        1.9  

Drugs

     2,936        1.0       2,873        1.0       10,091        3.4  

Construction & Building

     1,958        0.7       2,869        1.0       —        —  

Food/Drug Retailers

     3,835        1.3       2,737        1.0       5,861        2.0  

Brokers/Dealers/Investment Houses

     2,470        0.9       2,618        0.9       4,832        1.6  

Oil & Gas

     2,519        0.9       2,273        0.8       6,070        2.1  

Hotel, Gaming and Leisure

     2,604        0.9       1,917        0.7       —        —    

Nonferrous Metals/Minerals

     1,207        0.4       1,505        0.5       1,835        0.6  

Broadcast Radio and Television

     283        0.1       1,258        0.4       467        0.2  

Beverage, Food & Tobacco

     3,005        1.0       984        0.3       —          —  

Environmental Industries

     801        0.3       732        0.3       250        0.1  

Services: Consumer

     655        0.2       496        0.2       —        —  

Building and Development

     248        0.1       248        0.1       485        0.2  

Telecommunications/Cellular

     —          —       —          —         2,431        0.8  

Capital Equipment

     3,989        1.4       —          —         —          —    

Transportation

     1,005        0.3       —          —         —          —    
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 289,999        100.0   $ 284,845        100.0   $ 295,239        100.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

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Portfolio composition by geographic location at fair value

The following table shows our portfolio composition by geographic location at fair value at November 30, 2016, February 29, 2016 and February 28, 2015. The geographic composition is determined by the location of the corporate headquarters of the portfolio company.

 

     At November 30, 2016     At February 29, 2016     At February 28, 2015  
     Investments
at
Fair Value
     Percentage
of Total
Portfolio
    Investments
at
Fair Value
     Percentage
of Total
Portfolio
    Investments
at
Fair Value
     Percentage
of Total
Portfolio
 
    

($ in thousands)

 

Southeast

   $ 113,621        40.9   $ 108,661        38.3   $ 92,069        38.3

Midwest

     55,526        20.0       57,553        20.3       55,767        23.2  

Northeast

     41,973        15.1       52,875        18.6       34,412        14.3  

Southwest

     24,843        9.0       25,535        9.0       —          —    

West

     16,561        6.0       24,544        8.6       40,259        16.7  

Other(1)

     15,266        5.5       12,828        4.5       17,031        7.1  

Northwest

     7,780        2.8       —          —         —          —    

International

     2,000        0.7       2,000        0.7       1,000        0.4  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 277,570        100.0   $ 283,996        100.0   $ 240,538        100.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1) Comprised of our investment in the subordinated notes of Saratoga CLO and, as of November 30, 2016, the Class F Notes of Saratoga CLO.

Results of operations

Operating results for the three and nine months ended November 30, 2016 and the fiscal years ended February 29, 2016, February 28, 2015 and February 28, 2014 are as follows:

 

     For the Three
Months Ended

November 30,
2016
    For the Nine
Months Ended

November 30,
2016
    For the Year Ended  
         February 29,
2016
     February 28,
2015
    February 28,
2014
 
     ($ in thousands)  

Total investment income

   $ 8,442     $ 24,799     $ 30,050      $ 27,375     $ 22,893  

Total expenses

     5,023       16,238       19,372        17,701       14,019  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net investment income

     3,419       8,561       10,678        9,674       8,874  

Net realized gains

     260       12,300       226        3,276       1,271  

Net unrealized appreciation (depreciation) on investments

     (2,105     (10,728     741        (1,943     (1,648
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net increase in net assets resulting from operations

   $ 1,574     $ 10,133     $ 11,645      $ 11,007     $ 8,497  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

As described in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto, we identified errors that impacted the year ended February 28, 2014. The corrections for the errors, which we have concluded are immaterial to all prior period consolidated financial statements, are reflected in the consolidated financial statements and selected financial data included in this Prospectus.

 

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Investment income

The composition of our investment income for the three and nine months ended November 30, 2016 and the fiscal years ended February 29, 2016, February 28, 2015 and February 28, 2014 are as follows:

 

     For the Three
Months Ended

November 30,
2016
     For the Nine
Months Ended

November 30,
2016
     For the Year Ended  
           February 29,
2016
     February 28,
2015
     February 28,
2014
 
     ($ in thousands)  

Interest from investments

   $ 7,456      $ 22,040      $ 26,871      $ 24,684      $ 20,179  

Management fee income

     375        1,124        1,495        1,520        1,775  

Interest from cash and cash equivalents and other income

     611        1,635        1,684        1,171        939  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 8,442      $ 24,799      $ 30,050      $ 27,375      $ 22,893  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

For the three months ended November 30, 2016, total investment income of $8.4 million, increased $1.5 million, or 21.7% compared to $6.9 million for the three months ended November 30, 2015. Interest income from investments increased $1.3 million, or 19.7%, to $7.5 million for the three months ended November 30, 2016 from $6.2 million for the three months ended November 30, 2015. This reflects an increase of 15.2% in total investments to $277.6 million at November 30, 2016 from $241.0 million at November 30, 2015, with the weighted average current coupon increasing from 11.3% to 11.9%.

For the nine months ended November 30, 2016, total investment income of $24.8 million, increased $2.5 million, or 11.4% compared to $22.3 million for the nine months ended November 30, 2015. Interest income from investments increased $2.0 million, or 10.3%, to $22.0 million for the nine months ended November 30, 2016 from $20.0 million for the nine months ended November 30, 2015. This reflects an increase of 15.2% in total investments to $277.6 million at November 30, 2016 from $241.0 million at November 30, 2015, with the weighted average current coupon increasing from 11.3% to 11.9%.

For the fiscal year ended February 29, 2016, total investment income increased $2.7 million, or 9.8% compared to the fiscal year ended February 28, 2015. Interest income from investments increased $2.2 million, or 8.9%, to $26.9 million for the year ended February 29, 2016 from $24.7 million for the fiscal year ended February 28, 2015. This reflects an increase of 18.1% in total investments to $284.0 million at February 29, 2016 from $240.5 million at February 28, 2015, offset by the weighted average current coupon reducing from 12.0% to 11.5%.

For the fiscal year ended February 28, 2015, total investment income increased $4.5 million, or 19.6% compared to the fiscal year ended February 28, 2014. Interest income from investments increased $4.5 million, or 22.3%, to $24.7 million for the year ended February 28, 2015 from $20.2 million for the fiscal year ended February 28, 2014. This reflects an increase of 16.9% in total investments to $240.5 million at February 28, 2015 from $205.8 million at February 28, 2014, offset by the weighted average current coupon reducing from 12.5% to 12.0%.

For the three and nine months ended November 30, 2016, total PIK income was $0.2 million and $0.5 million, respectively. For the fiscal years ended February 29, 2016, February 28, 2015 and February 28, 2014, total PIK income was $1.0 million, $1.2 million, and $0.9 million, respectively.

The Saratoga CLO was refinanced in October 2013. As a result, proceeds from principal payments in the loan portfolio of Saratoga CLO must now be used to paydown its outstanding notes. Thus, the management fee income and investment income that we receive from Saratoga CLO has declined from historical periods, decreasing $0.03 million or 1.7% to $1.5 million and $0.3 million or 14.3% to $1.5 million, for the years ended February 29, 2016 and February 28, 2015, respectively.

 

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Operating expenses

The composition of our operating expenses for the three and nine months ended November 30, 2016 and the years ended February 29, 2016, February 28, 2015 and February 28, 2014 are as follows:

Operating Expenses

 

     For the
Three Months
Ended

November 30,
2016
     For the
Nine Months
Ended

November 30,
2016
    

 

For the Year Ended

 
           February 29,
2016
     February 28,
2015
     February 28,
2014
 
     ($ in thousands)  

Interest and debt financing expenses

   $ 2,369      $ 7,107      $ 8,456      $ 7,375      $ 6,084  

Base management fees

     1,220        3,650        4,529        4,157        3,327  

Professional fees

     330        992        1,336        1,302        1,212  

Incentive management fees

     342        992        2,232        2,548        939  

Administrator expenses

     395        2,331        1,175        1,000        1,000  

Insurance

     69        210        331        337        443  

Directors fees and expenses

     66        192        204        210        204  

Excise tax expense

     232        764        114        294        —  

General & administrative and other expenses

     —        —        995        478        810  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total expenses

   $ 5,023      $ 16,238      $ 19,372      $ 17,701      $ 14,019  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

For the three months ended November 30, 2016, total operating expenses increased $0.2 million, or 5.0% compared to the three months ended November 30, 2015. For the nine months ended November 30, 2016, total operating expenses increased $1.6 million, or 10.6% compared to the nine months ended November 30, 2015.

For the year ended February 29, 2016, total operating expenses increased $1.7 million, or 9.4% compared to the year ended February 28, 2015. For the year ended February 28, 2015, total operating expenses increased $3.7 million, or 26.3% compared to the year ended February 28, 2014.

For the three and nine months ended November 30, 2016 and the years ended February 29, 2016 and February 28, 2015, the increase in interest and debt financing expenses is primarily attributable to an increase in outstanding debt as compared to the prior years, with increased levels of outstanding SBA debentures, as well as the notes payable being outstanding for the full year ended February 29, 2016, and additional notes being issued during this year. The Credit Facility decreased from $9.6 million outstanding at February 28, 2015 to $0.0 million at February 29, 2016, while our SBA debentures increased from $79.0 million at November 30, 2015 to $112.7 million at November 30, 2016 and from $79.0 million to $103.7 million from February 28, 2015 to February 29, 2016. The notes increased from $61.4 million outstanding to $61.8 million outstanding and from $48.3 million outstanding to $61.8 million outstanding for these same periods. For the three months ended November 30, 2016, the weighted average interest rate on our outstanding indebtedness was 4.66% compared to 5.07% for the three months ended November 30, 2015. For the nine months ended November 30, 2016, the weighted average interest rate on our outstanding indebtedness was 4.73% compared to 4.99% for the nine months ended November 30, 2015. For the year ended February 29, 2016, the weighted average interest rate on our outstanding indebtedness was 4.91% compared to 4.95% for the fiscal year ended February 28, 2015 and 5.35% for the fiscal year ended February 28, 2014. This decrease was primarily driven by an increase in SBA debentures that carry a lower interest rate but now make up a higher proportion of our overall debt, increasing from 56.3% of overall debt as of November 30, 2015 to 64.6% as of November 30, 2016 and from 57.7% of overall debt as of February 28, 2015 to 62.7% as of February 29, 2016.

For the three months ended November 30, 2016, base management fees increased $0.1 million, or 11.8% compared to the three months ended November 30, 2015. For the nine months ended November 30, 2016, base

 

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management fees increased $0.3 million, or 8.4% compared to the nine months ended November 30, 2015. The increase in base management fees results from the 11.8% increase in the average value of our total assets, less cash and cash equivalents, from $250.1 million as of November 30, 2015 to $279.6 million as of November 30, 2016. For the year ended February 29, 2016, base management fees increased $0.4 million, or 8.9% compared to the fiscal year ended February 28, 2015. The increase in base management fees results from the increase in the average value of our total assets, less cash and cash equivalents, from $246.5 million as of February 28, 2015 to $266.3 million as of February 29, 2016. For the year ended February 28, 2015, base management fees increased $0.8 million, or 25.0% compared to the fiscal year ended February 28, 2014. The increase in base management fees results from the increase in the average value of our total assets, less cash and cash equivalents, from $209.2 million to $246.5 million as of February 28, 2014 and 2015, respectively.

For the three and nine months ended November 30, 2016, professional fees decreased $0.02 million, or 5.0%, and decreased $0.04 million, or 3.8%, respectively, compared to the three and nine months ended November 30, 2015. For the year ended February 29, 2016, professional fees increased $0.03 million, or 2.7% compared to the fiscal year ended February 28, 2015. For the year ended February 28, 2015, professional fees increased $0.09 million, or 7.4% compared to the fiscal year ended February 28, 2014.

For the three months ended November 30, 2016, incentive management fees decreased $0.01 million, or 2.4%, compared to the three months ended November 30, 2015. For the nine months ended November 30, 2016, incentive management fees increased $0.2 million, or 7.9%, compared to the nine months ended November 30, 2015. For the year ended February 29, 2016, incentive management fees decreased $0.3 million, or 12.4% compared to the fiscal year ended February 28, 2015. The first part of the incentive management fees increased this year, as higher total assets has led to increased net investment income above the hurdle rate pursuant to the Management Agreement. For the three months ended November 30, 2016, there was a reduction of $0.4 million in incentive management fees related to capital gains compared to a $0.2 million increase in expense as compared to the three months ended November 30, 2015, reflecting a $1.3 million net gain on investments for the three months ended November 30, 2015, as compared to a $1.8 million net loss on investments for the three months ended November 30, 2016. For the nine months ended November 30, 2016, the incentive management fees related to capital gains decreased from $0.5 million to $0.1 million compared to the nine months ended November 30, 2015, reflecting a $4.5 million net gain on investments for the nine months ended November 30, 2015, as compared to a $1.6 million net gain on investments for the nine months ended November 30, 2016. For the year ended February 29, 2016, incentive management fees in total were more than offset as the incentive management fees related to capital gains changed from a $0.3 million increase in expense to a $0.05 million decrease in expense compared to the fiscal year ended February 28, 2015. For the year ended February 28, 2015, incentive management fees increased $1.6 million, or 171.4% compared to the fiscal year ended February 28, 2014. The increase in incentive management fees is primarily attributable to an increase in accrued incentive fees this year, as higher total assets has led to increased net investment income above the hurdle rate pursuant to the Management Agreement. In addition, for the year ended February 28, 2015, the incentive management fees related to capital gains changed from a $0.07 million reduction of expense to a $0.3 million increase in expense compared to the fiscal year ended February 28, 2014.

As discussed above, the increase in interest and debt financing expenses for the three and nine months ended November 30, 2016 and for the years ended February 29, 2016, February 28, 2015 and February 28, 2014 is primarily attributable to an increase in the amount of outstanding debt as compared to the prior years. For the three and nine months ended November 30, 2016 and for the years ended February 29, 2016, February 28, 2015 and February 28, 2014, the weighted average interest rate on the outstanding borrowings under the Credit Facility was 6.00%, 6.00%, 6.00%, 6.75% and 7.50%, respectively. For the three and nine months ended November 30, 2016 and for the years ended February 29, 2016, February 28, 2015 and February 28, 2014, the weighted average interest rate on the outstanding borrowings of the SBA debentures was 3.08%, 3.12%, 3.12%, 2.93% and 3.03%, respectively.

 

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Net realized gains/(losses) on sales of investments

For the three months ended November 30, 2016, the Company had $23.8 million of sales, repayments, exits or restructurings resulting in $0.3 million of net realized gains. For the nine months ended November 30, 2016, the Company had $94.7 million of sales, repayments, exits or restructurings resulting in $12.3 million of net realized gains. The most significant realized gains during the nine months ended November 30, 2016 were as follows (dollars in thousands):

Nine Months ended November 30, 2016

 

Issuer

   Asset Type    Gross
Proceeds
     Cost      Net
Realized
Gain
 

Take 5 Oil Change, L.L.C.

   Common Stock    $ 6,505      $ 481      $ 6,024  

Legacy Cabinets, Inc.

   Common Stock Voting A-1      2,320        221        2,099  

Legacy Cabinets, Inc.

   Common Stock Voting B-1      1,464        139        1,325  

The $6.0 million of realized gain on our investment in Take 5 Oil Change, L.L.C. was due to the completion of a sales transaction with a strategic acquirer.

The $3.4 million of realized gains on our investments in Legacy Cabinets, Inc. were due to a period of steadily improving performance, leading up to our sale of shares in Legacy Cabinets, Inc.

For the fiscal year ended February 29, 2016, the Company had $68.2 million of sales, repayments, exits or restructurings resulting in $0.2 million of net realized gains. The most significant realized gains and losses during the year ended February 29, 2016 were as follows (dollars in thousands):

Fiscal year ended February 29, 2016

 

Issuer

   Asset Type    Gross
Proceeds
     Cost      Net
Realized
Gain/
(Loss)
 

Network Communications, Inc.

   Common Stock    $ 3,206      $ —        $ 3,206  

Targus Holdings, Inc.

   Unsecured Note      —          (2,054      (2,054

Targus Holdings, Inc.

   First Lien Term Loan      —          (1,172      (1,172

Targus Holdings, Inc.

   Common Stock      —          (567      (567

The $3.2 million of realized gain on our investments in Network Communications, Inc. is due to the sale of the company to a third party and reflects the realization value pursuant to that transaction. The $3.8 million realized loss in our investments in Targus Holdings, Inc. was due to a restructuring that occurred during the quarter, resulting in the elimination of our former Unsecured Note and common equity, accompanied by a conversion of our prior first lien term loan in to a new equity.

For the fiscal year ended February 28, 2015, the Company had $73.3 million of sales, repayments, exits or restructurings resulting in $3.3 million of net realized gains. The most significant realized gains during the year ended February 28, 2015 were as follows (dollars in thousands):

Fiscal year ended February 28, 2015

 

Issuer

   Asset Type    Gross
Proceeds
     Cost      Net
Realized

Gain/
(Loss)
 

Community Investors, Inc.

   Term Loan A Senior Facility    $ 6,983      $ 6,886      $ 97  

HOA Restaurant GP/Finance

   Senior Secured Notes      4,225        3,938        287  

USS Parent Holding Corp

   Non Voting Common Stock      248        133        115  

USS Parent Holding Corp

   Voting Common Stock      5,650        3,026        2,624  

 

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For the fiscal year ended February 28, 2014, the Company had $71.6 million of sales, repayments, exits or restructurings resulting in $1.3 million of net realized gains. The most significant realized gains during the year ended February 28, 2014 were as follows (dollars in thousands):

Fiscal year ended February 28, 2014

 

Issuer

   Asset Type    Gross
Proceeds
     Cost      Net
Realized
Gain/
(Loss)
 

Penton Media, Inc.

   First Lien Term Loan    $ 4,887      $ 4,681      $ 206  

Sourcehov, LLC

   Second Lien Term Loan      3,030        2,659        371  

Worldwide Express Operations, LLC

   Warrants      128        —        128  

Net unrealized appreciation/depreciation on investments

For the three months ended November 30, 2016, our investments had net unrealized depreciation of $2.1 million versus net unrealized appreciation of $0.8 million for the three months ended November 30, 2015. For the nine months ended November 30, 2016, our investments had net unrealized depreciation of $10.7 million versus net unrealized appreciation of $0.2 million for the nine months ended November 30, 2015. The most significant cumulative changes in unrealized appreciation and depreciation for the nine months ended November 30, 2016, were the following (dollars in thousands):

Nine Months ended November 30, 2016

 

Issuer

   Asset Type    Cost      Fair
Value
     Total
Unrealized
Depreciation
    YTD Change
in Unrealized
Depreciation
 

Take 5 Oil Change, L.L.C.

   Common Stock    $ —      $ —      $ —     $ (5,755

Legacy Cabinets, Inc.

   Common Stock Voting A-1      —        —        —       (2,456

Legacy Cabinets, Inc.

   Common Stock Voting B-1      —        —        —       (1,550

Elyria Foundry Company, L.L.C.

   Common Stock      9,217        357        (8,860     (1,669

The $5.8 million of change in unrealized depreciation in our investment in Take 5 Oil Change, L.L.C. was driven by the completion of a sales transaction with a strategic acquirer. In realizing this gain as a result of the sale, unrealized appreciation was adjusted to zero, which resulted in a $5.8 million change in unrealized depreciation for the period.

The $4.0 million of change in unrealized depreciation in our investments in Legacy Cabinets, Inc. were driven by the completion of a sales transaction. In realizing these gains as a result of the sale, unrealized appreciation was adjusted to zero, which resulted in a $4.0 million change in unrealized depreciation for the period.

The $1.7 million of change in unrealized depreciation in our investment in Elyria Foundry Company, L.L.C. was driven by a decline in oil and gas end markets since year-end, negatively impacting the company’s performance.

 

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For the year ended February 29, 2016, our investments had net unrealized appreciation of $0.7 million versus net unrealized depreciation of $1.9 million for the year ended February 28, 2015. The most significant cumulative changes in unrealized appreciation and depreciation for the year ended February 29, 2016, were the following (dollars in thousands):

Fiscal year ended February 29, 2016

 

Issuer

   Asset Type    Cost      Fair
Value
     Total
Unrealized
Appreciation/
(Depreciation)
    YTD Change
in Unrealized
Appreciation/
(Depreciation)
 

Take 5 Oil Change, LLC

   Common Stock    $ 481      $   6,235      $ 5,754     $ 4,762  

Targus Holdings, Inc.

   Unsecured Notes      —          —        —         2,054  

Elyria Foundry Company, LLC

   Common Stock      9,217        2,026        (7,191     (4,735

The $4.8 million of change in unrealized appreciation in our investment in Take 5 Oil Change, LLC was driven by a transaction with a strategic acquirer.

The $2.1 million of change in unrealized appreciation in our investment in Targus Holdings, Inc. was due to a restructuring that occurred during the quarter, resulting in the elimination of our former Unsecured Note. In realizing this loss as a result of the restructuring, unrealized depreciation was adjusted to zero which resulted in a $2.1 million change in unrealized appreciation for the year.

The $4.7 million change in unrealized depreciation in our investment in the Elyria Foundry Company, LLC was primarily due to a decline in oil and gas end markets since year-end, negatively impacting the Company’s performance.

For the year ended February 28, 2015, our investments had net unrealized depreciation of $1.9 million versus net unrealized depreciation of $1.6 million for the year ended February 28, 2014. The most significant cumulative changes in unrealized appreciation and depreciation for the year ended February 28, 2015, were the following (dollars in thousands):

Fiscal year ended February 28, 2015

 

Issuer

   Asset Type    Cost      Fair
Value
     Total
Unrealized
Appreciation/
(Depreciation)
    YTD Change
in Unrealized
Appreciation/
(Depreciation)
 

Legacy Cabinets, Inc.

   Common—Voting A-1    $ 221      $ 1,493      $   1,272     $ 941  

Targus Holdings, Inc.

   Common      567        —        (567     (730

Saratoga CLO

   Other/Structured Finance

Securities

     15,953        17,031        1,078       (1,935

 

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For the year ended February 28, 2014, our investments had a decrease in net unrealized depreciation of $1.6 million versus an increase in net unrealized appreciation of $7.0 million for the year ended February 28, 2013. The most significant cumulative changes in unrealized appreciation and depreciation for the year ended February 28, 2014, were the following (in thousands):

Fiscal year ended February 28, 2014

 

Issuer

   Asset Type    Cost      Fair
Value
     Total
Unrealized
Appreciation/
(Depreciation)
    YTD Change
in Unrealized
Appreciation/
(Depreciation)
 

Saratoga CLO

   Other/Structured Finance

Securities

   $ 16,556      $ 19,570      $ 3,014     $ (3,558

Targus Holdings, Inc.

   Common Stock      567        730        163       (2,595

USS Parent Holding Corp.

   Voting Common Stock      3,026        5,028        2,002       2,162  

Group Dekko, Inc.

   Second Lien Term Loan      6,902        6,741        (161     (56

Elyria Foundry Company, LLC

   Senior Secured Notes      9,037        6,777        (2,260     (2,259

Changes in net assets resulting from operations

For the three and nine months ended November 30, 2016 and the fiscal years ended February 29, 2016, February 28, 2015 and February 28, 2014, we recorded a net increase in net assets resulting from operations of $1.6 million, $10.1 million, $11.6 million, $11.0 million and $8.5 million, respectively. Based on 5,727,933 weighted average common shares outstanding as of November 30, 2016, our per share net increase in net assets resulting from operations was $0.27 for the three months ended November 30, 2016. This compares to a per share net increase in net assets resulting from operations of $0.61 for the three months ended November 30, 2015 based on 5,632,011 weighted average common shares outstanding as of November 30, 2015. Based on 5,735,443 weighted average common shares outstanding as of November 30, 2016, our per share net increase in net assets resulting from operations was $1.77 for the nine months ended November 30, 2016. This compares to a per share net increase in net assets resulting from operations of $2.18 for the nine months ended November 30, 2015 based on 5,533,094 weighted average common shares outstanding as of November 30, 2015. Based on 5,582,453 weighted average common shares outstanding as of February 29, 2016, our per share net increase in net assets resulting from operations was $2.09 for the fiscal year ended February 29, 2016. This compares to a per share net increase in net assets resulting from operations of $2.04 for the fiscal year ended February 28, 2015 (based on 5,385,049 weighted average common shares outstanding as of February 28, 2015), and a per share net increase in net assets resulting from operations of $1.73 for the fiscal year ended February 28, 2014 (based on 4,920,517 weighted average common shares outstanding as of February 28, 2014).

FINANCIAL CONDITION, LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

We intend to continue to generate cash primarily from cash flows from operations, including interest earned from our investments in debt in middle market companies, interest earned from the temporary investment of cash in U.S. government securities and other high-quality debt investments that mature in one year or less, future borrowings and future offerings of securities.

Although we expect to fund the growth of our investment portfolio through the net proceeds from SBA debenture drawdowns and future equity offerings, including our dividend reinvestment plan, and issuances of senior securities or future borrowings, to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, we cannot assure you that our plans to raise capital will be successful. In this regard, because our common stock has historically traded at a price below our current net asset value per share and we are limited in our ability to sell our common stock at a price below net asset value per share, we have been and may continue to be limited in our ability to raise equity capital.

 

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In addition, we intend to distribute to our stockholders substantially all of our taxable income in order to satisfy the distribution requirement applicable to RICs under Subchapter M of the Code. In satisfying this distribution requirement, we have in the past relied on IRS issued private letter rulings concluding that a RIC may treat a distribution of its own stock as fulfilling its RIC distribution requirements if each stockholder may elect to receive his or her entire distribution in either cash or stock of the RIC subject to a limitation on the aggregate amount of cash to be distributed to all stockholders, which limitation must be at least 20% of the aggregate declared distribution. We may rely on these IRS private letter rulings in future periods to satisfy our RIC distribution requirement.

Also, as a BDC, we generally are required to meet a coverage ratio of total assets, less liabilities and indebtedness not represented by senior securities, to total senior securities, which include all of our borrowings and any outstanding preferred stock, of at least 200%. This requirement limits the amount that we may borrow. Our asset coverage ratio, as defined in the 1940 Act, was 306.6% as of November 30, 2016, 302.5% as of February 29, 2016 and 311.7% as of February 28, 2015. To fund growth in our investment portfolio in the future, we anticipate needing to raise additional capital from various sources, including the equity markets and other debt-related markets, which may or may not be available on favorable terms, if at all.

Consequently, we may not have the funds or the ability to fund new investments, to make additional investments in our portfolio companies, to fund our unfunded commitments to portfolio companies or to repay borrowings. Also, the illiquidity of our portfolio investments may make it difficult for us to sell these investments when desired and, if we are required to sell these investments, we may realize significantly less than their recorded value.

Madison revolving credit facility

Below is a summary of the terms of the senior secured revolving credit facility we entered into with Madison Capital Funding (the “Credit Facility”) on June 30, 2010.

Availability. The Company can draw up to the lesser of (i) $40.0 million (the “Facility Amount”) and (ii) the product of the applicable advance rate (which varies from 50.0% to 75.0% depending on the type of loan asset) and the value, determined in accordance with the Credit Facility (the “Adjusted Borrowing Value”), of certain “eligible” loan assets pledged as security for the loan (the “Borrowing Base”), in each case less (a) the amount of any undrawn funding commitments the Company has under any loan asset and which are not covered by amounts in the Unfunded Exposure Account referred to below (the “Unfunded Exposure Amount”) and (b) outstanding borrowings. Each loan asset held by the Company as of the date on which the Credit Facility was closed was valued as of that date and each loan asset that the Company acquires after such date will be valued at the lowest of its fair value, its face value (excluding accrued interest) and the purchase price paid for such loan asset. Adjustments to the value of a loan asset will be made to reflect, among other things, changes in its fair value, a default by the obligor on the loan asset, insolvency of the obligor, acceleration of the loan asset, and certain modifications to the terms of the loan asset.

The Credit Facility contains limitations on the type of loan assets that are “eligible” to be included in the Borrowing Base and as to the concentration level of certain categories of loan assets in the Borrowing Base such as restrictions on geographic and industry concentrations, asset size and quality, payment frequency, status and terms, average life, and collateral interests. In addition, if an asset is to remain an “eligible” loan asset, the Company may not make changes to the payment, amortization, collateral and certain other terms of the loan assets without the consent of the administrative agent that will either result in subordination of the loan asset or be materially adverse to the lenders.

Collateral. The Credit Facility is secured by substantially all of the assets of the Company (other than assets held by our SBIC subsidiary) and includes the subordinated notes (“CLO Notes”) issued by Saratoga CLO and the Company’s rights under the CLO Management Agreement (as defined below).

 

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Interest Rate and Fees. Under the Credit Facility, funds are borrowed from or through certain lenders at the greater of the prevailing LIBOR rate and 2.00%, plus an applicable margin of 5.50%. At the Company’s option, funds may be borrowed based on an alternative base rate, which in no event will be less than 3.00%, and the applicable margin over such alternative base rate is 4.50%. In addition, the Company pays the lenders a commitment fee of 0.75% per year on the unused amount of the Credit Facility for the duration of the Revolving Period (defined below). Accrued interest and commitment fees are payable monthly. The Company was also obligated to pay certain other fees to the lenders in connection with the closing of the Credit Facility.

Revolving Period and Maturity Date. The Company may make and repay borrowings under the Credit Facility for a period of three years following the closing of the Credit Facility (the “Revolving Period”). The Revolving Period may be terminated at an earlier time by the Company or, upon the occurrence of an event of default, by action of the lenders or automatically. All borrowings and other amounts payable under the Credit Facility are due and payable in full five years after the end of the Revolving Period.

Collateral Tests. It is a condition precedent to any borrowing under the Credit Facility that the principal amount outstanding under the Credit Facility, after giving effect to the proposed borrowings, not exceed the lesser of the Borrowing Base or the Facility Amount (the “Borrowing Base Test”). In addition to satisfying the Borrowing Base Test, the following tests must also be satisfied (together with Borrowing Base Test, the “Collateral Tests”):

 

    Interest Coverage Ratio. The ratio (expressed as a percentage) of interest collections with respect to pledged loan assets, less certain fees and expenses relating to the Credit Facility, to accrued interest and commitment fees and any breakage costs payable to the lenders under the Credit Facility for the last 6 payment periods must equal at least 175.0%.

 

    Overcollateralization Ratio. The ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the aggregate Adjusted Borrowing Value of “eligible” pledged loan assets plus the fair value of certain ineligible pledged loan assets and the CLO Notes (in each case, subject to certain adjustments) to outstanding borrowings under the Credit Facility plus the Unfunded Exposure Amount must equal at least 200.0%.

 

    Weighted Average FMV Test. The aggregate adjusted or weighted value of “eligible” pledged loan assets as a percentage of the aggregate outstanding principal balance of “eligible” pledged loan assets must be equal to or greater than 72.0% and 80.0% during the one-year periods prior to the first and second anniversary of the closing date, respectively, and 85.0% at all times thereafter.

The Credit Facility also requires payment of outstanding borrowings or replacement of pledged loan assets upon the Company’s breach of its representation and warranty that pledged loan assets included in the Borrowing Base are “eligible” loan assets. Such payments or replacements must equal the lower of the amount by which the Borrowing Base is overstated as a result of such breach or any deficiency under the Collateral Tests at the time of repayment or replacement. Compliance with the Collateral Tests is also a condition to the discretionary sale of pledged loan assets by the Company.

Priority of Payments. During the Revolving Period, the priority of payments provisions of the Credit Facility require, after payment of specified fees and expenses and any necessary funding of the Unfunded Exposure Account, that collections of principal from the loan assets and, to the extent that these are insufficient, collections of interest from the loan assets, be applied on each payment date to payment of outstanding borrowings if the Borrowing Base Test, the Overcollateralization Ratio and the Interest Coverage Ratio would not otherwise be met. Similarly, following termination of the Revolving Period, collections of interest are required to be applied, after payment of certain fees and expenses, to cure any deficiencies in the Borrowing Base Test, the Interest Coverage Ratio and the Overcollateralization Ratio as of the relevant payment date.

Reserve Account. The Credit Facility requires the Company to set aside an amount equal to the sum of accrued interest, commitment fees and administrative agent fees due and payable on the next succeeding three

 

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payment dates (or corresponding to three payment periods). If for any monthly period during which fees and other payments accrue, the aggregate Adjusted Borrowing Value of “eligible” pledged loan assets which do not pay cash interest at least quarterly exceeds 15.0% of the aggregate Adjusted Borrowing Value of “eligible” pledged loan assets, the Company is required to set aside such interest and fees due and payable on the next succeeding six payment dates. Amounts in the reserve account can be applied solely to the payment of administrative agent fees, commitment fees, accrued and unpaid interest and any breakage costs payable to the lenders.

Unfunded Exposure Account. With respect to revolver or delayed draw loan assets, the Company is required to set aside in a designated account (the “Unfunded Exposure Account”) 100.0% of its outstanding and undrawn funding commitments with respect to such loan assets. The Unfunded Exposure Account is funded at the time the Company acquires a revolver or delayed draw loan asset and requests a related borrowing under the Credit Facility. The Unfunded Exposure Account is funded through a combination of proceeds of the requested borrowing and other Company funds, and if for any reason such amounts are insufficient, through application of the priority of payment provisions described above.

Operating Expenses. The priority of payments provision of the Credit Facility provides for the payment of certain operating expenses of the Company out of collections on principal and interest during the Revolving Period and out of collections on interest following the termination of the Revolving Period in accordance with the priority established in such provision. The operating expenses payable pursuant to the priority of payment provisions is limited to $350,000 for each monthly payment date or $2.5 million for the immediately preceding period of twelve consecutive monthly payment dates. This ceiling can be increased by the lesser of 5.0% or the percentage increase in the fair market value of all the Company’s assets only on the first monthly payment date to occur after each one-year anniversary following the closing of the Credit Facility. Upon the occurrence of a Manager Event (described below), the consent of the administrative agent is required in order to pay operating expenses through the priority of payments provision.

Events of Default. The Credit Facility contains certain negative covenants, customary representations and warranties and affirmative covenants and events of default. The Credit Facility does not contain grace periods for breach by the Company of certain covenants, including, without limitation, preservation of existence, negative pledge, change of name or jurisdiction and separate legal entity status of the Company covenants and certain other customary covenants. Other events of default under the Credit Facility include, among other things, the following:

 

    an Interest Coverage Ratio of less than 150.0%;

 

    an Overcollateralization Ratio of less than 175.0%;

 

    the filing of certain ERISA or tax liens;

 

    the occurrence of certain “Manager Events” such as:

 

    failure by Saratoga Investment Advisors and its affiliates to maintain collectively, directly or indirectly, a cash equity investment in the Company in an amount equal to at least $5,000,000 at any time prior to the third anniversary of the closing date;

 

    failure of the Management Agreement between Saratoga Investment Advisors and the Company to be in full force and effect;

 

    indictment or conviction of Saratoga Investment Advisors or any “key person” for a felony offense, or any fraud, embezzlement or misappropriation of funds by Saratoga Investment Advisors or any “key person” and, in the case of “key persons,” without a reputable, experienced individual reasonably satisfactory to Madison Capital Funding appointed to replace such key person within 30 days;

 

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    resignation, termination, disability or death of a “key person” or failure of any “key person” to provide active participation in Saratoga Investment Advisors’ daily activities, all without a reputable, experienced individual reasonably satisfactory to Madison Capital Funding appointed within 30 days; or

 

    occurrence of any event constituting “cause” under the Collateral Management Agreement between the Company and Saratoga CLO (the “CLO Management Agreement”), delivery of a notice under Section 12(c) of the CLO Management Agreement with respect to the removal of the Company as collateral manager or the Company ceases to act as collateral manager under the CLO Management Agreement.

Conditions to Acquisitions and Pledges of Loan Assets. The Credit Facility imposes certain additional conditions to the acquisition and pledge of additional loan assets. Among other things, the Company may not acquire additional loan assets without the prior written consent of the administrative agent until such time that the administrative agent indicates in writing its satisfaction with Saratoga Investment Advisors’ policies, personnel and processes relating to the loan assets.

Fees and Expenses. The Company paid certain fees and reimbursed Madison Capital Funding for the aggregate amount of all documented, out-of-pocket costs and expenses, including the reasonable fees and expenses of lawyers, incurred by Madison Capital Funding in connection with the Credit Facility and the carrying out of any and all acts contemplated thereunder up to and as of the date of closing of the stock purchase transaction with Saratoga Investment Advisors and certain of its affiliates. These amounts totaled $2.0 million.

On February 24, 2012, we amended our senior secured revolving credit facility with Madison Capital Funding LLC to, among other things:

 

    expand the borrowing capacity under the credit facility from $40.0 million to $45.0 million;

 

    extend the Revolving Period from July 30, 2013 to February 24, 2015; and

 

    remove the condition that we may not acquire additional loan assets without the prior written consent of the administrative agent.

On September 17, 2014, we entered into a second amendment to the Revolving Facility with Madison Capital Funding LLC to, among other things:

 

    extend the commitment termination date from February 24, 2015 to September 17, 2017;

 

    extend the maturity date of the Revolving Facility from February 24, 2020 to September 17, 2022 (unless terminated sooner upon certain events);

 

    reduce the applicable margin rate on base rate borrowings from 4.50% to 3.75%, and on LIBOR borrowings from 5.50% to 4.75%; and

 

    reduce the floor on base rate borrowings from 3.00% to 2.25%; and on LIBOR borrowings from 2.00% to 1.25%.

As of November 30, 2016 and February 29, 2016, we had no outstanding borrowings under the Credit Facility and $112.7 million and $103.7 million SBA-guaranteed debentures outstanding, respectively (which are discussed below). As of February 28, 2015, we had $9.6 million outstanding under the Credit Facility and $79.0 million SBA-guaranteed debentures outstanding. Our borrowing base under the Credit Facility at November 30, 2016, February 29, 2016 and February 28, 2015 was $24.1 million, $21.8 million and $36.3 million, respectively.

Our asset coverage ratio, as defined in the 1940 Act, was 306.6%, 302.5% and 311.7% as of November 30, 2016 and for the years ended February 29, 2016 and February 28, 2015, respectively.

SBA-guaranteed debentures

In addition, we, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, sought and obtained a license from the SBA to operate an SBIC. In this regard, on March 28, 2012, our wholly-owned subsidiary, Saratoga Investment Corp. SBIC, LP,

 

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received a license from the SBA to operate as an SBIC under Section 301(c) of the Small Business Investment Act of 1958. SBICs are designated to stimulate the flow of private equity capital to eligible small businesses. Under SBA regulations, SBICs may make loans to eligible small businesses and invest in the equity securities of small businesses.

The SBIC license allows our SBIC subsidiary to obtain leverage by issuing SBA-guaranteed debentures. SBA-guaranteed debentures are non-recourse, interest only debentures with interest payable semi-annually and have a ten year maturity. The principal amount of SBA-guaranteed debentures is not required to be paid prior to maturity but may be prepaid at any time without penalty. The interest rate of SBA-guaranteed debentures is fixed on a semi-annual basis at a market-driven spread over U.S. Treasury Notes with 10-year maturities.

SBA regulations currently limit the amount that our SBIC subsidiary may borrow to a maximum of $150.0 million when it has at least $75.0 million in regulatory capital, receives a capital commitment from the SBA and has been through an examination by the SBA subsequent to licensing. As of February 29, 2016, our SBIC subsidiary had $75.0 million in regulatory capital and $103.7 million SBA-guaranteed debentures outstanding.

We received exemptive relief from the Securities and Exchange Commission to permit us to exclude the debt of our SBIC subsidiary guaranteed by the SBA from the definition of senior securities in the 200% asset coverage test under the 1940 Act. This allows us increased flexibility under the 200% asset coverage test by permitting us to borrow up to $150.0 million more than we would otherwise be able to absent the receipt of this exemptive relief.

On April 2, 2015, the SBA issued a “green light” letter inviting us to continue the application process to obtain a license to form and operate its second SBIC subsidiary. On September 27, 2016, the SBA informed us that as part of their continued review of our application for a second license, and in order to ensure that they were reviewing the most current information available, we would need to update all previously submitted materials and invited us to reapply. As a result of this request, with which we are in the process of complying, the existing “green light” letter that the SBA issued to us has expired. If approved in the future, a second SBIC license would provide us an incremental source of long-term capital by permitting us to issue up to $150.0 million of additional SBA-guaranteed debentures in addition to the $150.0 million already approved under the first license.

Unsecured notes

In May 2013, we issued $48.3 million in aggregate principal amount of our 2020 Notes for net proceeds of $46.1 million after deducting underwriting commissions of $1.9 million and offering costs of $0.3 million. The proceeds included the underwriters’ full exercise of their overallotment option. Interest on these 2020 Notes is paid quarterly in arrears on February 15, May 15, August 15 and November 15, at a rate of 7.50% per year, beginning August 15, 2013. The 2020 Notes mature on May 31, 2020 and since May 31, 2016 may be redeemed in whole or in part at any time or from time to time at our option. Pursuant to the Company’s Notification of Redemption of Securities filed on December 14, 2016, the Company has redeemed in full its 2020 Notes. The Company used a portion of the net proceeds from the 2023 Notes offering, which commenced on December 21, 2016, to repay all the outstanding indebtedness under the 2020 Notes. In connection with the issuance of the 2020 Notes, we agreed to the following covenants for the period of time during which the 2020 Notes are outstanding:

The 2020 Notes were redeemed in full on January 13, 2017 and are no longer listed on the NYSE.

On May 29, 2015, we entered into a Debt Distribution Agreement with Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc. through which we may offer for sale, from time to time, up to $20.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2020 Notes through an ATM offering. As of November 30, 2016, the Company sold 539,725 2020 N with a principal of $13,493,125 at an average price of $25.31 for aggregate net proceeds of $13,385,766 (net of transaction costs).

 

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On December 21, 2016, we issued $74.5 million in aggregate principal amount of our 2023 Notes for net proceeds of $72.1 million after deducting underwriting commissions of approximately $2.0 million and offering costs of approximately $0.5 million. The issuance included the exercise of substantially all of the underwriters’ option to purchase an additional $9.8 million aggregate principal amount of 2023 Notes within 30 days. Interest on the 2023 Notes is paid quarterly in arrears on March 15, June 15, September 15 and December 15, at a rate of 6.75% per year, beginning March 30, 2017. The 2023 Notes mature on December 20, 2023, and commencing December 21, 2019, may be redeemed in whole or in part at any time or from time to time at our option. The net proceeds from the offering were used to repay all of the outstanding indebtedness under the 2020 Notes, which amounts to $61.8 million, and for general corporate purposes in accordance with our investment objective and strategies. The 2020 Notes were redeemed in full on January 13, 2017.

In connection with the issuance of the 2023 Notes, we agreed to the following covenants for the period of time during which the notes are outstanding:

 

    we will not violate (whether or not we are subject to) Section 18(a)(1)(A) as modified by Section 61(a)(1) of the 1940 Act or any successor provisions, but giving effect to any exemptive relief granted to us by the SEC. Currently, these provisions generally prohibit us from making additional borrowings, including through the issuance of additional debt or the sale of additional debt securities, unless our asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, equals at least 200% after such borrowings.

 

    if, at any time, we are not subject to the reporting requirements of Sections 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act, to file any periodic reports with the SEC, we agree to furnish to holders of the 2023 Notes and the Trustee, for the period of time during which the 2023 Notes are outstanding, our audited annual consolidated financial statements, within 90 days of our fiscal year end, and unaudited interim consolidated financial statements, within 45 days of our fiscal quarter end (other than our fourth fiscal quarter). All such financial statements will be prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with applicable United States generally accepted accounting principles.

At November 30, 2016, February 29, 2016 and February 28, 2015, the fair value of investments, cash and cash equivalents and cash and cash equivalents, securitization accounts were as follows:

 

     At November 30,
2016
    At February 29,
2016
    At February 28,
2015
 
     Fair Value      Percentage
of
Total
    Fair Value      Percent
of
Total
    Fair Value      Percent
of
Total
 
    

($ in thousands)

 

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 5,770        1.9   $ 2,440        0.8   $ 1,888        0.7

Cash and cash equivalents, securitization accounts

     17,521        5.8       4,595        1.6       18,175        7.0  

Syndicated loans

     9,627        3.2       11,868        4.1       18,302        7.0  

First lien term loans

     160,460        53.3       144,643        49.7       145,207        55.7  

Second lien term loans

     80,195        26.7       88,178        30.3       35,603        13.7  

Unsecured notes

     —          —         —          —         4,230        1.7  

Structured finance securities

     15,266        5.1       12,828        4.4       17,031        6.5  

Equity Interest

     12,022        4.0       26,479        9.1       20,165        7.7  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 300,861        100.0   $ 291,031        100.0   $ 260,601        100.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

On September 24, 2014, we announced the approval of an open market share repurchase plan that allows it to repurchase up to 200,000 shares of our common stock at prices below our NAV as reported in its then most recently published consolidated financial statements, which was subsequently increased to 400,000 shares of our common stock. On October 5, 2016, our board of directors extended the open market share repurchase plan for

 

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another year to October 15, 2017 and increased the number of shares we are permitted to repurchase at prices below our NAV, as reported in its then most recently published consolidated financial statements, to 600,000 shares of our common stock. As of November 30, 2016, we purchased 214,391 shares of common stock, at the average price of $16.84 for approximately $3.6 million pursuant to this repurchase plan.

On October 5, 2016, our board of directors declared a dividend of $0.44 per share, which was paid on November 9, 2016, to common stockholders of record as of October 31, 2016. Shareholders had the option to receive payment of the dividend in cash, or receive shares of common stock, pursuant our DRIP. Based on shareholder elections, the dividend consisted of approximately $1.5 million in cash and 58,548 newly issued shares of common stock, or 1.0% of our outstanding common stock prior to the dividend payment. The number of shares of common stock comprising the stock portion was calculated based on a price of $17.12 per share, which equaled the volume weighted average trading price per share of the common stock on October 27, 28, 31 and November 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8 and 9, 2016.

On August 8, 2016, our board of directors declared a special dividend of $0.20 per share, which was paid on September 5, 2016, to common stockholders of record as of August 24, 2016. Shareholders had the option to receive payment of the dividend in cash, or receive shares of common stock, pursuant our DRIP. Based on shareholder elections, the dividend consisted of approximately $0.7 million in cash and 24,786 newly issued shares of common stock, or 0.4% of our outstanding common stock prior to the dividend payment. The number of shares of common stock comprising the stock portion was calculated based on a price of $17.06 per share, which equaled the volume weighted average trading price per share of the common stock on August 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31 and September 1 and 2, 2016.

On July 7, 2016, our board of directors declared a dividend of $0.43 per share, which was paid on August 9, 2016, to common stockholders of record as of July 29, 2016. Shareholders had the option to receive payment of the dividend in cash, or receive shares of common stock, pursuant our DRIP. Based on shareholder elections, the dividend consisted of approximately $1.5 million in cash and 58,167 newly issued shares of common stock, or 1.0% of our outstanding common stock prior to the dividend payment. The number of shares of common stock comprising the stock portion was calculated based on a price of $16.32 per share, which equaled the volume weighted average trading price per share of the common stock on July 27, 28, 29 and August 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 and 9, 2016.

On March 31, 2016, our board of directors declared a dividend of $0.41 per share payable on April 27, 2016, to common stockholders of record on April 15, 2016. Shareholders had the option to receive payment of the dividend in cash, or receive shares of common stock, pursuant our DRIP. Based on shareholder elections, the dividend consisted of approximately $1.5 million in cash and 56,728 newly issued shares of common stock, or 1.0% of our outstanding common stock prior to the dividend payment. The number of shares of common stock comprising the stock portion was calculated based on a price of $15.43 per share, which equaled the volume weighted average trading price per share of the common stock on April 14, 15, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 25, 26 and 27, 2016.

On January 12, 2016, our board of directors declared a dividend of $0.40 per share payable on February 29, 2016, to common stockholders of record on February 1, 2016. Shareholders had the option to receive payment of the dividend in cash, or receive shares of common stock, pursuant our DRIP. Based on shareholder elections, the dividend consisted of approximately $1.4 million in cash and 66,764 newly issued shares of common stock, or 1.2% of our outstanding common stock prior to the dividend payment. The number of shares of common stock comprising the stock portion was calculated based on a price of $13.11 per share, which equaled the volume weighted average trading price per share of the common stock on February 16, 17, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 and 29, 2016.

On October 7, 2015, our board of directors declared a dividend of $0.36 per share payable on November 30, 2015, to common stockholders of record on November 2, 2015. Shareholders had the option to receive payment

 

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of the dividend in cash, or receive shares of common stock, pursuant our DRIP. Based on shareholder elections, the dividend consisted of approximately $1.1 million in cash and 61,029 newly issued shares of common stock, or 1.1% of our outstanding common stock prior to the dividend payment. The number of shares of common stock comprising the stock portion was calculated based on a price of $14.53 per share, which equaled the volume weighted average trading price per share of the common stock on November 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 24, 25, 27 and 30, 2015.

On July 8, 2015, our board of directors declared a dividend of $0.33 per share payable on August 31, 2015, to common stockholders of record on August 3, 2015. Shareholders had the option to receive payment of the dividend in cash, or receive shares of common stock, pursuant our DRIP. Based on shareholder elections, the dividend consisted of approximately $1.1 million in cash and 47,861 newly issued shares of common stock, or 0.9% of our outstanding common stock prior to the dividend payment. The number of shares of common stock comprising the stock portion was calculated based on a price of $15.28 per share, which equaled the volume weighted average trading price per share of the common stock on August 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 and 31, 2015.

On May 14, 2015, our board of directors declared a special dividend of $1.00 per share payable on June 5, 2015, to common stockholders of record on May 26, 2015. Shareholders had the option to receive payment of the dividend in cash, or receive shares of common stock, pursuant our DRIP. Based on shareholder elections, the dividend consisted of approximately $3.4 million in cash and 126,230 newly issued shares of common stock, or 2.3% of our outstanding common stock prior to the dividend payment. The number of shares of common stock comprising the stock portion was calculated based on a price of $16.47 per share, which equaled the volume weighted average trading price per share of the common stock on May 22, 26, 27, 28, 29 and June 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, 2015.

On April 9, 2015, our board of directors declared a dividend of $0.27 per share payable on May 29, 2015, to common stockholders of record on May 4, 2015. Shareholders had the option to receive payment of the dividend in cash, or receive shares of common stock, pursuant our dividend reinvestment plan (“DRIP”). Based on shareholder elections, the dividend consisted of approximately $0.9 million in cash and 33,766 newly issued shares of common stock, or 0.6% of our outstanding common stock prior to the dividend payment. The number of shares of common stock comprising the stock portion was calculated based on a price of $16.78 per share, which equaled the volume weighted average trading price per share of the common stock on May 15, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 26, 27, 28 and 29, 2015.

On September 24, 2014, the Company declared a dividend of $0.22 per share payable on February 27, 2015. Shareholders have the option to receive payment of the dividend in cash, or receive shares of common stock, pursuant our DRIP. Based on shareholder elections, the dividend consisted of approximately $0.8 million in cash and 26,858 newly issued shares of common stock, or 0.5% of our outstanding common stock prior to the dividend payment. The number of shares of common stock comprising the stock portion was calculated based on a price of $14.97 per share, which equaled the volume weighted average trading price per share of the common stock on February 13, 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 24, 25, 26 and 27, 2015.

Also on September 24, 2014, the Company declared a dividend of $0.18 per share payable on November 28, 2014. Shareholders had the option to receive payment of the dividend in cash, or receive shares of common stock pursuant to our DRIP. Based on shareholder elections, the dividend consisted of approximately $0.6 million in cash and 22,283 newly issued shares of common stock, or 0.4% of our outstanding common stock prior to the dividend payment. The number of shares of common stock comprising the stock portion was calculated based on a price of $14.37 per share, which equaled the volume weighted average trading price per share of the common stock on November 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 25, 26 and 28, 2014.

On October 30, 2013, our board of directors declared a dividend of $2.65 per share payable on December 27, 2013, to common stockholders of record on November 13, 2013. Shareholders had the option to

 

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receive payment of the dividend in cash, shares of common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of common stock, provided that the aggregate cash payable to all shareholders was limited to approximately $2.5 million or $0.53 per share. This dividend was declared in reliance on certain private letter rulings issued by the IRS concluding that a RIC may treat a distribution of its own stock as fulfilling its RIC distribution requirements if each stockholder may elect to receive his or her entire distribution in either cash or stock of the RIC subject to a limitation on the aggregate amount of cash to be distributed to all stockholders, which limitation must be at least 20.0% of the aggregate declared distribution.

Based on shareholder elections, the dividend consisted of approximately $2.5 million in cash and 649,500 shares of common stock, or 13.7% of our outstanding common stock prior to the dividend payment. The amount of cash elected to be received was greater than the cash limit of 20.0% of the aggregate dividend amount, thus resulting in the payment of a combination of cash and stock to shareholders who elected to receive cash. The number of shares of common stock comprising the stock portion was calculated based on a price of $15.439 per share, which equaled the volume weighted average trading price per share of the common stock on December 11, 13, and 16, 2013.

On November 9, 2012, our board of directors declared a dividend of $4.25 per share payable on December 31, 2012, to common stockholders of record on November 20, 2012. Shareholders had the option to receive payment of the dividend in cash, shares of common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of common stock, provided that the aggregate cash payable to all shareholders was limited to approximately $3.3 million or $0.85 per share.

Based on shareholder elections, the dividend consisted of $3.3 million in cash and 853,455 shares of common stock, or 22.0% of our outstanding common stock prior to the dividend payment. The amount of cash elected to be received was greater than the cash limit of 20.0% of the aggregate dividend amount, thus resulting in the payment of a combination of cash and stock to shareholders who elected to receive cash. The number of shares of common stock comprising the stock portion was calculated based on a price of $15.444 per share, which equaled the volume weighted average trading price per share of the common stock on December 14, 17 and 19, 2012.

On November 15, 2011, our board of directors declared a dividend of $3.00 per share payable on December 30, 2011, to common stockholders of record on November 25, 2011. Shareholders had the option to receive payment of the dividend in cash, shares of common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of common stock, provided that the aggregate cash payable to all shareholders was limited to $2.0 million or $0.60 per share.

Based on shareholder elections, the dividend consisted of $2.0 million in cash and 599,584 shares of common stock, or 18.0% of our outstanding common stock prior to the dividend payment. The amount of cash elected to be received was greater than the cash limit of 20.0% of the aggregate dividend amount, thus resulting in the payment of a combination of cash and stock to shareholders who elected to receive cash. The number of shares of common stock comprising the stock portion was calculated based on a price of $13.117067 per share, which equaled the volume weighted average trading price per share of the common stock on December 20, 21 and 22, 2011.

On November 12, 2010, our board of directors declared a dividend of $4.40 per share to shareholders payable in cash or shares of our common stock, in accordance with the provisions of the IRS Revenue Procedure 2010-12, which allows a publicly-traded regulated investment company to satisfy its distribution requirements with a distribution paid partly in common stock provided that at least 10.0% of the distribution is payable in cash. The dividend was paid on December 29, 2010 to common shareholders of record on November 19, 2010.

Based on shareholder elections, the dividend consisted of $1.2 million in cash and 596,235 shares of common stock, or 22.0% of our outstanding common stock prior to the dividend payment. The amount of cash

 

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elected to be received was greater than the cash limit of 10.0% of the aggregate dividend amount, thus resulting in the payment of a combination of cash and stock to shareholders who elected to receive cash. The number of shares of common stock comprising the stock portion was calculated based on a price of $17.8049 per share, which equaled the volume weighted average trading price per share of the common stock on December 20, 21 and 22, 2010.

On November 13, 2009, our board of directors declared a dividend of $18.25 per share payable on December 31, 2009, to common stockholders of record on November 25, 2009. Shareholders had the option to receive payment of the dividend in cash, shares of common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of common stock, provided that the aggregate cash payable to all shareholders was limited to $2.1 million or $0.25 per share.

Based on shareholder elections, the dividend consisted of $2.1 million in cash and 8,648,725 shares of common stock, or 104.0% of our outstanding common stock prior to the dividend payment. The amount of cash elected to be received was greater than the cash limit of 13.7% of the aggregate dividend amount, thus resulting in the payment of a combination of cash and stock to shareholders who elected to receive cash. The number of shares of common stock comprising the stock portion was calculated based on a price of $1.5099 per share, which equaled the volume weighted average trading price per share of the common stock on December 24 and 28, 2009.

We cannot provide any assurance that these measures will provide sufficient sources of liquidity to support our operations and growth.

Contractual obligations

The following table shows our payment obligations for repayment of debt and other contractual obligations at November 30, 2016:

 

            Payment Due by Period  
     Total      Less Than
1 Year
     1 -3
Years
     3 -5
Years
     More Than
5 Years
 
     ($ in thousands)  

Long-Term Debt Obligations

   $ 174,453      $   —      $   —      $ 61,793      $ 112,660  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Off-balance sheet arrangements

The Company’s off-balance sheet arrangements consisted of $3.0 million, $2.0 million and $11.2 million of unfunded commitments to provide debt financing to its portfolio companies or to fund limited partnership interests as of November 30, 2016, February 29, 2016 and February 28, 2015, respectively. Such commitments are generally up to the Company’s discretion to approve, or the satisfaction of certain financial and nonfinancial covenants and involve, to varying degrees, elements of credit risk in excess of the amount recognized in the Company’s consolidated statement of assets and liabilities and are not reflected in the Company’s consolidated statements of assets and liabilities.

 

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A summary of the composition of the unfunded commitments as of November 30, 2016, February 29, 2016 and February 28, 2015 is shown in the table below (dollars in thousands):

 

     As of  
     November 30,
2016
     February 29,
2016
     February 28,
2015
 

Avionte Holdings, LLC

   $ 1,000      $ 1,000      $ 1,000  

Identity Automation

     —          1,000        —    

Bristol Hospice, LLC

     —          —          7,500  

HMN Holdco, LLC

     —          —          2,400  

Knowland Technology Holdings, L.L.C.

     —          —          300  

GreyHeller LLC

     2,000        —          —